Abnormal Child Psychology 6th Edition Test Bank

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Abnormal Child Psychology 6th Edition Test Bank

1. A child typically enters the mental health system ____.​

  a. ​by asking for a referral from a pediatrician
  b. ​through the criminal justice system
  c. ​by the actions, positive or negative, of peers
  d. ​through teachers, counselors, or parents

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Introduction
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

2. Many child and adolescent problems can be best described as the ____.​

  a. ​failure to demonstrate expected developmental progress
  b. ​absence of the key survival skills needed to thrive
  c. ​result of excessive expectations by parents
  d. ​stresses associated with educational demands

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Introduction
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

3. Most problematic behaviors shown by children are ____.​

  a. ​qualitatively different from normal behavior
  b. ​shown to some degree by most children
  c. ​caused by inadequate parenting
  d. ​indistinguishable from one another

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Introduction
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

4. Interventions for children and adolescents are often intended to ____.​

  a. ​restore previous levels of functioning
  b. ​serve as a warning for negative behavior
  c. ​reform behavior to conform to norms
  d. ​eliminate distress and promote further development

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Introduction
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

5. ​In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, children’s mental health problems were attributed to ____.

  a. ​possession by the devil or other evil forces
  b. ​poor parenting practices
  c. ​chemical imbalances
  d. ​low self-esteem

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

6. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, acts of child maltreatment were ____.​

  a. ​illegal and punishable by severe fines
  b. ​very uncommon but largely overlooked
  c. ​practiced primarily among lower socioeconomic classes
  d. ​considered to be a parent’s right for educating or disciplining a child

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

7. John Locke (1632–1704) advanced the belief that children were ____.​

  a. ​possessed by the devil
  b. ​uncivilized
  c. ​emotionally sensitive beings
  d. ​young adults

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

8. The work of Jean-Marc Gaspard Itard (1775–1838) is notable in that ____.​

  a. ​his orientation toward children was one of care and helping, in contrast to the times
  b. ​he was the first documented individual to use behavioral techniques with children
  c. ​he was a strong advocate for sending disturbed children to asylums
  d. ​he initiated the Massachusetts’ Stubborn Child Act

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

9. ​How did Jean-Marc Gaspard Itard believe he could tame the “wild boy of Aveyron”?

  a. ​exorcism
  b. ​environmental stimulation
  c. ​allow him to behave as he did in the wild
  d. ​peer modeling

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

10. ​Which method did Jean-Marc Gaspard Itard use to tame the “wild boy of Aveyron”?

  a. ​cold showers
  b. ​tranquilizers
  c. ​timeouts
  d. ​massages

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

11. ​At the end of the nineteenth century, children with intellectual disabilities were regarded as ____.

  a. ​suffering from “moral insanity”
  b. ​imbeciles
  c. ​lunatics
  d. ​possessed by the devil

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

12. ​At the end of the nineteenth century, children with normal cognitive abilities but disturbing behavior were thought to be ____.

  a. ​suffering from “moral insanity”
  b. ​imbeciles
  c. ​diseased
  d. ​possessed by the devil

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

13. ​The first disorder unique to children and adolescents was ____.

  a. ​masturbatory insanity
  b. ​schizoid disorder
  c. ​moral insanity
  d. ​manic depression

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

14. During the early part of the twentieth century, the biological disease model of mental problems led to ____.​

  a. ​the belief that mental illness had no physical basis
  b. ​improved treatments
  c. ​more controlled research methods
  d. ​eugenics and segregation

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

15. ​Freud was the first to link mental disorders to ____.

  a. ​neurotransmitter imbalances
  b. ​early childhood experiences
  c. ​possession by evil spirits
  d. ​classical conditioning

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

16. Freud’s theory focused on ____.​

  a. ​single causes of behavior
  b. ​multiple causes of behavior
  c. ​diseases of the mind
  d. ​neurological causes of behavior

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

17. Efforts to classify psychiatric disorders into descriptive categories are called ____.​

  a. ​etiologies
  b. ​differentials
  c. ​nosologies
  d. ​prescriptives

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

18. Who is referred to as the “Father of Behaviorism”?​

  a. ​Freud
  b. ​Albert
  c. ​Watson
  d. ​Rayner

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

19. ​The development of ____ treatment can be traced back to the rise of behaviorism in the early 1900s.

  a. ​psychodynamic
  b. ​evidence-based
  c. ​group-based
  d. ​humanist

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

20. In the first half of the twentieth century, most children with mental disorders were ____.​

  a. ​institutionalized
  b. ​treated with behavior therapy
  c. ​treated with psychoanalysis
  d. ​overlooked

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

21. The work of Rene Spitz ____.​

  a. ​led to the development of an organic model of mental illness
  b. ​is the first documented attempt to help a special needs child
  c. ​led to some of the first empirically supported behavioral techniques for eliminating children’s fears
  d. ​raised serious questions about the harmful impact of institutionalization of children’s development

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

22. ​During the 1950s and 1960s, ____ emerged as a systematic approach to the treatment of childhood disorders.

  a. ​psychoanalysis
  b. ​family therapy
  c. ​behavior therapy
  d. ​institutionalization

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

23. ​The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; Public Law 104-446) mandates ____.

  a. ​segregated education for children with special needs
  b. ​the use of IQ tests for assessing children
  c. ​standardized programs for children identified as special needs
  d. ​education in the least restrictive environment possible

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

24. What is the purpose of an Individualized Educational Plan (IEP)?​

  a. ​to test the child using standardized tests
  b. ​to accurately diagnose each child’s illness against a model
  c. ​to tailor the child’s school program to his or her needs
  d. ​to understand the role of family history in mental health

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

25. The 2007 United Nations Treaty adopted a new convention to ____.​

  a. ​provide free and appropriate education to children with special needs
  b. ​improve disability rights and abolish discrimination
  c. ​provide psychotherapy services to children with special needs
  d. ​improve test measures to diagnose children with special needs

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

26. Psychological disorders are defined as patterns of behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or physical symptoms that are associated with ____.​

  a. ​deviance
  b. ​defiance of norms
  c. ​disobedience
  d. ​distress

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

27. In contrast to adults, abnormality in children is often defined in terms of ____.​

  a. ​stage of development
  b. ​everyday stress
  c. ​disability
  d. ​addiction

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

28. Which description of a child would be considered labeling a child rather than describing her behavior?​

  a. ​Ashley is a child with mental retardation.
  b. ​Karlee is an anxious child.
  c. ​Amber is a child with autism.
  d. ​Robyn is a child who is small.

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

29. Boundaries between abnormal versus normal functioning are ____.​

  a. ​scientifically defined
  b. ​relatively arbitrary
  c. ​well-established
  d. ​determined by each family

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

30. What concept states that various outcomes may stem from similar beginnings such as child maltreatment?​

  a. ​trifinality
  b. ​ethnic finality
  c. ​equifinality
  d. ​multifinality

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

31. Successful adaptation to the environment varies across ____.​

  a. ​psychological theories
  b. ​developmental stages
  c. ​region of the country
  d. ​culture and ethnicity

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

32. ​The ability to successfully adapt in the environment is referred to as ____.

  a. ​intelligence
  b. ​adjustment
  c. ​resilience
  d. ​coping

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Risk and Resilience
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

33. To determine a child’s competencies, it is useful to have some knowledge of ____.​

  a. ​institutional norms
  b. ​animal behavior
  c. ​adult dysfunctions
  d. ​developmental tasks

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

34. Which of the following is not a developmental task of middle childhood?​

  a. ​academic achievement
  b. ​getting along with peers
  c. ​differentiating self from environment
  d. ​rule-governed conduct

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

35. Which of the following is not a developmental task of adolescence?​

  a. ​academic achievement
  b. ​self-control and compliance
  c. ​forming a cohesive sense of self-identity
  d. ​involvement in extracurricular activities

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

36. Which of the following is not a developmental task of infancy?​

  a. ​attachment to caregiver
  b. ​language
  c. ​differentiation of self from environment
  d. ​forming close friendships within and across gender

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

37. Resiliency in boys is best associated with households in which there are:​

  a. ​male role models, structure, and encouragement of emotional expressiveness
  b. ​female role models, structure, and encouragement of emotional expressiveness
  c. ​male role models and a combination of risk taking and independence
  d. ​female role models and a combination of risk taking and independence

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

38. Multifinality refers to the observation that ____.​

  a. ​different disorders may stem from similar causes
  b. ​various outcomes may stem from similar beginnings
  c. ​the same disorder may have different causes
  d. ​developmental pathways may converge at the end

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

39. Conduct disorder may arise from different developmental pathways, a concept known as ____.​

  a. ​equifinality
  b. ​multifinality
  c. ​developmental diversity
  d. ​disordered beginnings

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

40. Which is an example of resiliency?​

  a. ​submissiveness
  b. ​coping skills
  c. ​networking skills
  d. ​physical aptitude

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Risk and Resilience
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

41. A risk factor is a variable that ____.​

  a. ​follows a negative outcome
  b. ​increases the likelihood that a negative outcome will occur
  c. ​indicates positive outcomes
  d. ​decreases the likelihood that negative outcome will occur

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Risk and Resilience
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

42. Which of the following is true with respect to resilience?​

  a. ​Resilience is relevant to a few, traumatic life events.
  b. ​Resilience cannot be learned or taught.
  c. ​Resilience remains consistent over time.
  d. ​Resilience may vary over time and across situations.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Risk and Resilience
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

43. By the year 2020, global child and adolescent mental health issues, in terms of disability, will ____.​

  a. ​decrease by 50%
  b. ​remain the same as the present day
  c. ​slightly increase
  d. ​surpass physical health issues

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   The Significance of Mental Health Problems among Children and Youths
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

44. Which risk factor is most likely to increase a child’s vulnerability to psychopathology?​

  a. ​chronic poverty
  b. ​impulsivity
  c. ​two-career families
  d. ​lack of siblings

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Risk and Resilience
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

45. In the United States and Canada, children from ____ racial/ethnic backgrounds have the highest rates of poverty.​

  a. ​African American and Native American
  b. ​Native American and Asian American
  c. ​Asian American and Mexican American
  d. ​African American and Mexican American

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Risk and Resilience
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

46. Girls have higher rates of ____ than boys.​

  a. ​illiteracy
  b. ​autism
  c. ​depression
  d. ​ADHD

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

47. Childhood poverty is a daily reality for about one in ____ children in the United States.​

  a. ​four
  b. ​five
  c. ​seven
  d. ​eight

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

48. Which statement about children’s mental health is false?​

  a. ​About 1 in 15 children has a mental health problem that impairs their functioning.
  b. ​Approximately 75% of children with mental health problems receive proper services.
  c. ​Race plays more of a role than socioeconomic status (SES) in disorder rates among children.
  d. ​About 1 in 10 children meets the criteria for a specific psychological disorder.

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   The Significance of Mental Health Problems among Children and Youths
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

49. Most children today ____.​

  a. ​will have the same development trajectory to adulthood
  b. ​grow out of their childhood difficulties by adulthood
  c. ​face greater stressors at earlier ages than children of the past
  d. ​have the same types of problems as children of the past

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

50. Which children are disproportionately afflicted with mental health problems?​

  a. ​those who are recent immigrants
  b. ​those who are only children
  c. ​those with more than two siblings
  d. ​those born to parents with criminal histories

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   The Significance of Mental Health Problems among Children and Youths
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

51. The significant difficulties that children in chronic poverty experience may be due to​

  a. ​damage to the cerebellum
  b. ​an underactive amygdala
  c. ​certain genetic markers
  d. ​impaired prefrontal cortex development

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

52. Which statement is true regarding LGBT youth?​

  a. ​They are more likely to seek help from adults.
  b. ​They often experience verbal and physical abuse.
  c. ​They have fewer academic problems.
  d. ​They are more likely to be bullies.

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

53. Which statement reflects the differences in mental health problems between boys and girls?​

  a. ​Anxiety disorders are more common in boys than girls.
  b. ​Sex differences in problem behaviors exhibit by early infancy.
  c. ​Boys demonstrate more difficulties than girls starting in early adolescence.
  d. ​Boys’ externalizing problems are more prevalent than girls’ in the preschool years.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

54. Which statement is true about how ethnicity affects mental health problems in children?​

  a. ​Minority children in the United States are overrepresented in rates of some disorders.
  b. ​No differences emerge in relation to race and mental health even when controlling for other factors.
  c. ​Minority children and youth do not face any more disadvantages in life than other children.
  d. ​Ethnic representation in research studies has received a great deal of attention in studies of child psychopathology.

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

55. Verified reports of child abuse and neglect number over ____ in the United States.​

  a. ​100,000
  b. ​200,000
  c. ​500,000
  d. ​1,000,000

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

56. Phone surveys suggest that about ____ of 10- to 16-year-olds experience physical and/or sexual abuse.​

  a. ​one-tenth
  b. ​one-fourth
  c. ​one-third
  d. ​one-half

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

57. Phone surveys suggest that about ____ of 12- to 17-year-olds met criteria for either post-traumatic stress disorder, major depressive episode, or substance abuse/dependence.​

  a. ​1% to 5%
  b. ​5% to 9%
  c. ​16% to 19%
  d. ​20% to 35%

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

58. Which issues make adolescence a particularly vulnerable period?​

  a. ​risky sexual behavior
  b. ​sporting teams
  c. ​chores at home
  d. ​technology use

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

59. Children with the most chronic and serious disorders ____.​

  a. ​are more likely to receive help, and therefore, to succeed in school
  b. ​face sizable difficulties throughout their lives
  c. ​are less likely to have social problems in online venues
  d. ​do not tend to carry a psychiatric disorder into adulthood

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

60. What might be one consequence associated with child psychopathology?​

  a. ​increased demands on health systems
  b. ​less funding for educational institutions
  c. ​less interest in interventions
  d. ​increased funding for criminal justice systems

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

61. ​How has the societal view of children changed throughout history and who were some of the major historical figures responsible for these changes?

ANSWER:   Early writings suggest that children were considered servants of the state in the city-states of early Greece. Ancient Greek and Roman societies believed that any person—young or old—with a physical or mental handicap, disability, or deformity was an economic burden and a social embarrassment, and thus was to be scorned, abandoned, or put to death. Today we recognize children as valuable, independent of any other purpose, to help them develop normal lives and competencies. Some of the major influences were Freud, Watson, and Locke.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

62. What characteristics of a child place him or her at risk for developing a psychological disorder?​

ANSWER:   Children who face many known risk factors, such as community violence and parental divorce, are vulnerable to abnormal development. Acute, stressful situations as well as chronic adversity put children’s successful development at risk. Chronic poverty, serious caregiving deficits, parental mental illness, divorce, homelessness, and racial prejudice are known risk factors that increase children’s vulnerability to psychopathology—especially in the absence of compensatory strengths and resources.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Risk and Resilience
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

63. In regards to legislation pertaining to children with special needs and education, what is IDEA and what does it mandate?​

ANSWER:   ​In the United States the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; Public Law 104-446) mandates: free and appropriate public education for any child with special needs in the least restrictive environment for that child; each child with special needs, regardless of age, must be assessed with culturally appropriate tests; each of these children must have an individualized education program (IEP) tailored to his or her needs, and must be re-assessed.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

64. What is an IEP and what is its purpose?​

ANSWER:   An IEP is an individualized education program tailored to his or her needs, and must be re-assessed.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

65. What is the goal of the Treaty that the United Nations General Assembly adopted in 2007 regarding persons with disabilities?​

ANSWER:   In 2007, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a new convention to protect the rights of persons with disabilities around the world. This convention represents an important shift from addressing the “special needs” of children to realizing their rights and removing the physical, linguistic, social, and cultural barriers that remain. Countries that ratify the convention agree to enact laws and other measures to improve disability rights, and also to abolish legislation, customs, and practices that discriminate against persons with disabilities.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Historical Views and Breakthroughs
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

66. What should be taken into account when diagnosing most child and adolescent disorders?​

ANSWER:   To judge what is abnormal, we need to be sensitive to each child’s stage of development and consider each child’s unique methods of coping and way of compensating for difficulties.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

67. In what ways can low income and/or poverty affect children’s development?​

ANSWER:   Poverty has a significant, yet indirect, effect on children’s adjustment, most likely because of its association with negative influences—particularly harsh, inconsistent parenting and elevated exposure to acute and chronic stressors—that define the day-to-day experiences of children in poverty.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

68. Define the concept of competence. How may competence be assessed?​

ANSWER:   ​Definitions of abnormal child behavior must take into account the child’s competence—that is, the ability to successfully adapt in the environment. Developmental tasks, which include broad domains of competence such as conduct and academic achievement, tell how children typically progress within each domain as they grow. Knowledge of the developmental tasks provides an important backdrop for considering a child or adolescent’s developmental progress and impairments.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

69. Distinguish between the concepts of multifinality and equifinality.​

ANSWER:   Multifinality is a concept that proposes that various outcomes may stem from similar beginnings (in this case, child maltreatment). Equifinality is a concept that proposes that similar outcomes stem from different early experiences and developmental pathways.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

70. Distinguish between risk and resilience.​

ANSWER:   A risk factor is a variable that precedes a negative outcome of interest and increases the chances that the outcome will occur. Children who survive risky environments by using their strong self-confidence, coping skills, and abilities to avoid risk situations may be considered resilient—they seem able to fight off or recover from their misfortune.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Risk and Resilience
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

71. What are some of the key factors affecting rates and expression of mental disorders?​

ANSWER:   ​New pressures and social changes may place children at increasing risk for the development of disorders at younger ages (Obradovic et al., 2010). Many stressors today are quite different from those faced by our parents and grandparents. Some have been around for generations: chronic poverty, inequality, family breakup, single parenting, and so on. Others are more recent or are now more visible: homelessness, adjustment problems of children in immigrant families, inadequate child care available to working parents, and conditions associated with the impact of prematurity, parental HIV, and cocaine or alcohol abuse on children’s growth and development.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

72. What are some of the findings regarding sex differences in children’s mental health problems?​

ANSWER:   Hyperactivity, autism, childhood disruptive behavior disorders, and learning and communication disorders are more common in boys than in girls; the opposite is true for most anxiety disorders, adolescent depression, and eating disorders.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

73. What child rearing environment predicts the best resiliency for boys, and which predicts the best for girls?​

ANSWER:   Resilience in boys is associated with households in which there is a male role model (such as a father, grandfather, or older brother); structure; rules; and some encouragement of emotional expressiveness. In contrast, girls who display resilience come from households that combine risk taking and independence with support from a female caregiver.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

74. Discuss the influence of race and ethnicity in the development of psychological disorders.​

ANSWER:   Children from certain ethnic and racial groups in the United States are overrepresented in rates of some disorders, such as substance abuse, delinquency, and teen suicide (Nguyen et al., 2007). However, once the effects of socioeconomic status (SES), sex, age, and referral status are controlled for (i.e., the unique contributions of these factors are removed or accounted for), few differences in the rate of children’s psychological disorders emerge in relation to race or ethnicity.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

75. Discuss the difficulties sexual minority youth experience in society and which mental health disorders they are most at risk for developing.​

ANSWER:   ​According to several large surveys of LGBT youths in middle and high schools, they are more likely to be victimized by their peers as well as by family members, and they report more bullying, teasing, harassment, and physical assault than other students. Given the stigma and prejudice that exist in many parts of society, it is not surprising that young people who are LGBT have higher rates of mental health problems, including depression and suicidal behavior, substance abuse, and risky sexual behavior, as compared with their heterosexual counterparts.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders? A Look at Some Key Factors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

 

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