Abnormal Psychology 3rd Edition Test Bank

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Abnormal Psychology 3rd Edition Test Bank

Chapter 1
Abnormal Psychology: Historical and Modern Perspectives

Multiple Choice:

1) In psychology, if the term “abnormal” means “away from normal,” what problem
does this definition present when categorizing someone as being “abnormal”?
A) It does not measure standard deviations.
B) It does not assume that deviation on both sides of average is negative.
C) It does not assume abnormality is negative.
D) It does not allow for positive deviations.

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 3
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Conceptual

2) The term “deviance” implies
A) looking different.
B) behaving differently.
C) having a mental illness.
D) engaging in criminal wrongdoing.

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 4
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Conceptual

3) Gerry is a night watchman who has worked at the same company for 25 years. He is described as very shy and withdrawn around others. While this behavior is not problematic at work, his relatives find him “weird” and tend to shun him at family gatherings. Despite encouragement by his immediate family to mingle, Gerry hardly speaks to others at these events. According to the “goodness-of-fit” concept, Gerry’s behavior would
A) not be viewed as a problem at family gatherings.
B) not be viewed as a problem at work but would be viewed as a problem at family gatherings.
C) not be viewed as a problem at all.
D) only be viewed as a problem if it caused difficulty for his immediate family.

ANSWER: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 4
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Applied

4) Which of the following terms is defined as the shared behavioral patterns and lifestyles that differentiate one group of people from another?
A) race
B) ethnicity
C) culture
D) group expectations

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 5
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Conceptual

5) Which statement below is TRUE of the original definition of a culture-bound illness?
A) It is less severe than other forms of mental illness.
B) The abnormal behavior is specific to a particular location or group.
C) It is usually found only in children.
D) The behavior usually requires hospitalization in the home culture.

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 5
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Factual

6) The case of James Eagan Holmes described in your text highlights the
A) shift from eccentricity to behaving dangerously.
B) stereotyping of a person with mental illness.
C) importance of early intervention in culture-bound illnesses.
D) influence of the media on defining abnormal behavior.

ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 6
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Factual

7) Juan is a freshman at a local university. He gets up at the same time each day and follows the same pattern: showering and shaving, dressing, and checking his backpack for required books, notebooks, and pens. Early in the first semester, this behavior took approximately 30 minutes. As the semester progressed, Juan spent more and more time checking and rechecking his backpack to make sure he had everything he needed. Toward the end of the semester, Juan was always late for his first class because of his “thoroughness.” A psychologist might conclude that Juan’s behavior is

A) typical for a conscientious student.
B) dysfunctional even if not distressful.
C) not abnormal because it does not cause problems for others.
D) normal according to the “goodness-of-fit” model.
ANSWER: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 7
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Applied

8) According to your text, abnormal behavior is defined as behavior that is inconsistent with the individual’s developmental, cultural, and societal norms, creates emotional distress, or
A) is seen by others as deviant.
B) interferes with daily functioning.
C) is “culturally bound.”
D) is aligned with the “goodness-of-fit” model.

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 8
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Factual

9) The etiology of a disorder refers to
A) the developmental stage in which a disorder appears.
B) the cultural context of a disorder.
C) how a disorder begins.
D) how a culture impacts a disorder.

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 8
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Factual

10) Approximately what total percentage of adults in the U.S. have suffered from a psychological disorder at some time in their lives?
A) 10%
B) 25%
C) 38%
D) 47%

ANSWER: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 8
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Factual

11) Of all disorders reported in the U.S., the most common are major depression and
A) anxiety disorders.
B) alcohol dependence.
C) schizophrenic disorders.
D) personality disorder.
ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 8
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Factual

12) When using the DSM-5 system to define a behavior as abnormal, which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) The person’s behavior is assessed both categorically and dimensionally.
B) The person either falls into a category or does not fall into a category.
C) The person’s level of dysfunction is not considered.
D) The behavior is not considered within a cultural context.

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 8
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Conceptual

13) Men are more likely than women to suffer from
A) alcohol and drug abuse.
B) mood disorders and anxiety disorders.
C) alcohol abuse and mood disorders.
D) depression and anxiety disorders.

ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 9
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Factual

14) Except for drug and alcohol abuse, the highest rates of psychological disorders are found among persons with the lowest incomes and
A) least amount of education.
B) highest number of siblings.
C) female gender.
D) suburban places of residence.

ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 9
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Factual

15) Which of the following approaches would allow an understanding of how abnormal behavior varies in severity over time, perhaps increasing and decreasing, or how behaviors change from one disorder to another?
A) categorical
B) dimensional
C) orthogonal
D) rational

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 9
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Factual

16) William is a well-educated 40-year-old man who suffers from schizophrenic disorder. Originally, he was employed as a computer programmer, but he was fired two months ago because of chronic absenteeism. For the last several weeks he has been homeless. He sleeps at night in a cardboard box behind a Dunkin Donut after closing time. Which of the following terms is used to describe William’s current plight?
A) Downward shift
B) Downward drift
C) Downward SES
D) Downward trajectory

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 9
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Applied

17) A study in your text addressing the relationship between SES and the likelihood of developing a psychological disorder among children found that
A) children from different SES groups develop psychological disorders at different rates.
B) children at particular ages develop psychological disorders at different rates.
C) children from all SES groups develop psychological disorders at the same rates.
D) children of middle-income parents have the lowest rates of illness.

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 9
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Factual

18) The concept of “developmental trajectory” expresses the notion that
A) symptoms of a disorder are always most severe in childhood.
B) symptoms of a disorder may vary depending on a person’s age.
C) age determines the presence of a disorder but not symptom expression.
D) a person’s developmental stage has little bearing on a given diagnosis.
ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 10
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Conceptual

19) Which of the following statements about differences found in the rates of psychological disorders in boys and girls at different ages is TRUE?
A) Both boys and girls peak at approximately the same age.
B) Boys peak at age 13 but girls peak much earlier.
C) Boys peak at approximately age 9 or 10 but girls peak in their early 20s.
D) Boys peak around age 10 but girls reach their peak around age 16.

ANSWER: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 11
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Factual

20) Trephination, as practiced by ancient cultures, was a process whereby
A) the two halves of the brain were severed.
B) a small opening was made in the eye socket.
C) the inner ear was punctured with a sharp object.
D) certain portions of the skull were cut away.

ANSWER: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 12
Topic: The History of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Factual

21) The ancient Greek physician Asclepius foreshadowed modern treatment for psychological disorders in that he
A) founded the first pharmacy that prescribed psychoactive medication for patients.
B) based his practice on the idea that trephination, as an early medical intervention, was successful for most disorders.
C) invented the practice of placing patients in cool baths to relieve stress.
D) founded the first sanctuary for mental disorders offering a variety of treatments.

ANSWER: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 12
Topic: The History of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Factual
22) Hippocrates identified symptoms of abnormal behavior still recognized today by psychologists. These symptoms include hallucinations, delusions, melancholia, and
A) avoidance.
B) mania.
C) tremors.
D) psychosis.

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 12
Topic: The History of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Factual

23) Felicia believes that her cell phone is beginning to control her thoughts. She noticed this after she switched phone plans and thinks the problem began with the new service. This belief would typically be known as a
A) delusion.
B) hallucination.
C) hysterical episode.
D) melancholic thought.

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 12
Topic: The History of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Applied

24) In ancient Greece, hysteria was believed to be caused by
A) wandering blood.
B) a wandering brain.
C) a wandering uterus.
D) wandering bile.

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 12
Topic: The History of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Factual

25) Hippocrates believed that maladaptive behaviors were caused by an imbalance in bodily humors that originated either with physical factors or
A) demonic possession.
B) the wrath of the gods.
C) a shifting of lunar tides.
D) a change in the seasons.

ANSWER: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 13
Topic: The History of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Factual

26) In medieval Europe, mental illness was thought to be caused by
A) retribution from the gods.
B) evil or demonic spirits.
C) a wandering uterus.
D) a dysfunctional family.

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 13
Topic: The History of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Factual

27) A recent news story describes an unusual condition found among females at a local high school. After eating frozen yogurt from their cafeteria, a number of girls have begun to “spin wildly” throughout the lunchroom until being restrained by a faculty hall monitor. Immediately after being stopped, each girl reported feeling compelled to “spin” after eating. The number of girls involved in these incidents increased until the yogurt machine was removed from the cafeteria. In all probability, this behavior can be considered an episode of
A) mass-induced mania.
B) mass hysteria.
C) demonic possession.
D) emotional dysplasia.

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 14
Topic: The History of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Applied

28) Emotional contagion is the automatic mimicry and synchronization of expression, vocalizations, postures, and
A) values of another.
B) fantasies of another.
C) word patterns of another.
D) movements of another.

ANSWER: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 14
Topic: The History of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Conceptual

29) Our modern use of the word “bedlam,” denoting a chaotic situation, is historically rooted in which of the following practices?
A) Allowing hysterics to act out their beliefs.
B) Warehousing of mentally ill persons.
C) Allowing witch hunters to convict and hang witches.
D) Warehousing entire families believed to be mentally ill.

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 14
Topic: The History of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Factual

30) The first physician to adopt a form of occupational therapy for patients was
A) Pinel.
B) Paracelsus.
C) Dix.
D) Hippocrates.

ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 15
Topic: The History of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Factual

31) William Tuke, a contemporary of Philippe Pinel, proposed that patients live, work, and relax in a compassionate and religious environment. This philosophy was the foundation for
A) community treatment.
B) moral treatment.
C) voluntary commitment.
D) individual treatment.

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 15
Topic: The History of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Factual

32) Although Anton Mesmer was criticized for his animal magnetism approach to treatment, he managed to demonstrate the importance of
A) a physician’s training.
B) energy flow.
C) humane treatment.
D) the placebo effect.

ANSWER: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 17
Topic: The History of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Factual
33) Darien is 3 years old. He slips off a step, falls, and bruises his knee. Upon picking the crying toddler up, Darien’s mother kisses his knee and gives him an M&M. Magically, Darien’s pain disappears. This phenomenon would be known as the _____________ in psychology.
A) Mesmer effect
B) talking cure
C) placebo effect
D) classical conditioning effect

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 17
Topic: The History of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Applied

34) Emil Kraepelin is best known for his contributions to the study of schizophrenia. He introduced two new diagnostic categories of disordered behavior – dementia praecox and manic-depressive insanity – based on symptom differentiation, _________________, and ________________.
A) etiology; prognosis
B) etiology; physiology
C) prognosis; symptomology
D) prognosis; physiology

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 17
Topic: The History of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Factual

35) Which of the following statements about Josef Breuer’s approach to the case of Anna O. is TRUE?
A) He recognized that Anna’s difficulty moving her legs was due to general paresis, so he treated her with medication.
B) Breuer believed that only psychoanalysis would help cure the hysteria manifested by Anna.
C) He believed that the animal magnetism concept could be effective if the patient had faith in the placebo effect.
D) Breuer believed that hypnosis could have a beneficial effect by allowing Anna to discuss events and experiences relevant to the disorder.

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 17
Topic: The History of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Conceptual
36) Jeffrey’s therapist is conducting an initial interview with him. The therapist spends a lot of time asking questions about Jeffrey’s parents and his early life experiences. Since he seems to view Jeffrey’s parents as the “root cause” of his problems, this therapist is most likely oriented toward ____________.
A) psychoanalysis
B) humanism
C) behaviorism
D) behavioral genetics

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 18
Topic: The History of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Applied

37) According to Freud’s theory, the id is
A) the source of basic drives and of psychic energy.
B) capable of delaying gratification through its conscience.
C) controlled by the superego but not by the ego.
D) located at the conscious level of awareness.

ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 18
Topic: The History of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Factual

38) Raul is a college freshman who looks forward to weekend parties at college. He especially likes to play “beer pong” and is known on campus as a champion player. After a recent party, Raul received a DUI citation. Raul’s parents have urged him to seek treatment for his “alcohol problem,” but Raul refuses. He does not believe he has a drinking problem. In Freud’s theory, which of the following defense mechanisms is Raul likely using?
A) Intellectualization
B) Rationalization
C) Denial
D) Repression

ANSWER: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 19
Topic: The History of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Applied

39) During which of the following psychosexual stages does a child experience fantasies about the opposite-sex parent?
A) Genital Stage
B) Anal Stage
C) Oral Stage
D) Phallic Stage
ANSWER: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 19
Topic: The History of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Factual

40) Which of the following is a technique that Freud used for treatment?
A) undoing
B) regression
C) interpretation
D) sublimation

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 19
Topic: The History of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Factual

41) According to Freud, which of the following was critical to overcoming psychological difficulties?
A) Empathy
B) Hypnosis
C) Insight
D) Regression

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 20
Topic: The History of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Factual

42) In the classical conditioning paradigm demonstrated by Pavlov through his study of the physiology of dog digestion, what was the UCS?
A) Bell
B) Food powder
C) Pavlov
D) Salivating

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 20
Topic: The History of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Conceptual

43) In Pavlov’s experiment with dogs, classical conditioning was demonstrated when
A) the UCS elicited the CR.
B) the UCS elicited the UCR.
C) the CS elicited the CR.
D) the CS was paired with the UCS.

ANSWER: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 20
Topic: The History of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Conceptual

44) John B. Watson, the founder of behaviorism, maintained that
A) fear was an instinctive and unlearned response in children.
B) all behaviors were learned through exposure to the environment.
C) inner thoughts were acceptable behaviors for scientific study.
D) behavior was conditioned through operant reinforcement.

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 21
Topic: The History of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Conceptual

45) If a psychologist defines herself as a “scientist-practitioner,” what do we automatically know about her through this label?
A) She is focused on pure research and practices sound methodological principles.
B) She relies on the latest research findings in providing quality care and treatment to patients.
C) She takes a behavioral approach, only trying to change dysfunctional behaviors that are observable.
D) She is not focused on the etiology of a disorder but on a research-based treatment approach.

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 23
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Conceptual

46) Neurons release neurotransmitters into synapses. These neurotransmitters
A) land on the receptor site of the next neuron, causing it to fire.
B) block further messages from being sent to the next neuron.
C) land on an axon, causing it to fire and send an electrical impulse.
D) establish a permanent link between one nerve cell and the next.

ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 23
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Factual

47) Biological scarring, as seen in some disorders such as PTSD, demonstrates that
A) the brain is capable of healing itself after a trauma.
B) the brain may change as a result of the disorder.
C) genetics plays a vital role in vulnerability to a disorder.
D) brain plasticity is not possible after trauma.

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 24
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Conceptual

48) Which of the following statements about the viral infection theory as it relates to the development of psychological disorders is TRUE?
A) Viral infections do not cause changes in the brain that lead to later behavioral disturbances.
B) There is no relationship between viral infection and psychological disturbances.
C) Viral infections do not lead to psychological disturbances through immune system suppression.
D) Viral infections may take several pathways in producing disordered behavior.

ANSWER: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 25
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Conceptual

49) Freud and his successor, Carl Jung, had fundamental disagreements about the motivation for behavior. While Freud thought that past events and sexual impulses were important, Jung believed that
A) future goals and spiritual motivators may cause behavior.
B) past events and sexual and spiritual motivators were important.
C) present events and spiritual motivators cause behavior.
D) birth order was the most important determinant.

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 26
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Conceptual

50) Object relations theory proposes that people have a basic drive for
A) dominating others.
B) satisfying sexual instincts.
C) engaging in social interactions.
D) spiritual development.

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 26
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Conceptual

51) Dr. Barstow is treating a young man who is afraid of dogs. One method he uses is progressive muscle relaxation using vivid imagery. Once the patient is relaxed, Dr. Barstow introduces the patient to a picture of a dog with instructions to “Breathe deeply and remain calm and relaxed.” Which learning principle established by Wolpe is being employed in this example?
A) Mindfulness
B) Negative reinforcement
C) Backward chaining
D) Reciprocal inhibition

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 27
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Applied

52) In operant conditioning, a reinforcer serves to _______ a behavior it follows.
A) extinguish
B) weaken
C) strengthen
D) diminish

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 27
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Factual

53) Every time little Jeffrey goes shopping with his mom, there is an incident at the checkout line when he spots candy. Typically, Jeffrey’s mom initially refuses his request for a candy bar. When the child throws himself to the floor kicking and screaming, Jeffrey’s mom gives in and hands him the candy bar to end the embarrassing scene. In operant conditioning terms, what is maintaining the child’s “checkout tantrums”?
A) Negative reinforcement
B) Non-contingent reinforcement
C) Positive reinforcement
D) Vicarious reinforcement

ANSWER: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Applied
54) Which of the following statements about reinforcement is TRUE?
A) Reinforcement may increase or decrease a behavior it follows, as it depends on the targeted behavior of the organism.
B) Reinforcement must be primary to have an impact.
C) Reinforcement must be delivered every time a behavior is emitted to strengthen that behavior.
D) Reinforcement for one person may be punishment for another.

ANSWER: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 27
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Conceptual

55) Which of the following reinforcers meets the criterion for being “primary”?
A) Money
B) Attention
C) Grades
D) Power

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 27
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Applied

56) Derek did not clean the dishes even though it was his turn. As a result, his parents told him he could not go to his friend’s house to play. What did his parents engage in?
A) reinforcement
B) punishment
C) vicarious learning
D) shaping

ANSWER: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 28
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Applied

57) Which of the following forms of learning explains why television has a profound effect on children’s learning?
A) Operant conditioning
B) Vicarious conditioning
C) Classical conditioning
D) Shaping conditioning

ANSWER: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 28
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Applied

58) Whereas the behavioral approach focuses on ________, the cognitive model targets _______ in explaining behavior.
A) external events; mental processes
B) mental processes; external events
C) thought distortions; punishment
D) punishment; thought distortions

ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 28
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Factual

59) Dr. Pambros returns Abnormal Psychology exams. Juanita, Kevin, and Morgan all receive grades of “C.” Juanita is grateful to have passed. Kevin is devastated. Morgan is mildly disappointed but recognizes that there are three remaining exams that could boost his grade. How would the cognitive model explain the different responses of these students to the same event?
A) Thoughts are not as important at the event itself.
B) The event is essentially neutral.
C) Grades are inherently powerful events.
D) Grades are classic negative reinforcers.

ANSWER: B
Diff: 3 Page 28
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Applied

60) In Aaron Beck’s model of depression, the cognitive triad consists of
A) past, present, and future expectations.
B) three types of negative thoughts.
C) Freud’s id, ego and superego.
D) three levels of the mind.

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 29
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Factual

61) “I got a B in the course. I’ll never get into graduate school.” This statement typifies the cognitive distortion known as
A) overgeneralizing.
B) emotional reasoning.
C) catastrophizing.
D) magnifying.

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 29
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Applied

62) Carl Rogers proposed that phenomenology is critical in understanding an individual. Phenomenology means the
A) difference between what one perceives and what one ought to do.
B) subjective world of the individual.
C) objective world of reality.
D) degree to which objective reality and subjective reality are a fit.

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 29
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Factual

63) A message that implies “I will love you if you graduate with honors” is an example of
A) unconditional positive regard.
B) unconditional negative regard.
C) conditional positive regard.
D) conditional negative regard.

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 30
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Applied

64) While psychoanalytic and humanistic models assume that abnormality lies within the individual, ________ models assume that abnormal behavior must be understood in a larger context outside of the individual.
A) phenomenological
B) sociocultural
C) sociopathic
D) socioenvironmental

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 30
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Factual

65) Gender roles directly affect the ______ of abnormal behaviors.
A) expression
B) cause
C) severity
D) chronicity

ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 30
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Factual

66) The social learning model of behavioral acquisition proposes that
A) only behaviors in a social context are reinforced.
B) punishment is only effective in producing learning in humans.
C) a person does not actually have to do the behavior to learn it.
D) humans are motivated more by primary reinforcers than secondary reinforcers.

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 31
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Conceptual

67) Which of the following statements about women and abnormal behavior within a sociocultural context is TRUE?
A) Biological factors affect rates of mental illness for women around the world regardless of contextual factors.
B) Socioeconomic status is unrelated to rates of mental illness for women.
C) Some contextual factors place women at higher risk for psychological disorders.
D) Gender role expectations do not influence the development of abnormal behaviors.

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 31
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Factual

68) Familismo, a concept common in Latino culture is defined as:
A) pathological relationships between family members.
B) cold, distance patterns of communication between family members.
C) the centrality of, and obligation to, family over self and peers.
D) traditional family roles where the men hold more power than women.

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 32
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Factual

69) Latino youths born in the U.S. are ________ as likely to attempt suicide as foreign-born Latino youths.
A) two times
B) three times
C) four times
D) five times

ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 32
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Factual

70) Which of the following is a value emphasized by mainstream U.S. teen culture?
A) Collectivism
B) Familism
C) Peer relationships
D) Close living proximity to family

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 32
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Conceptual

71) Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) Modern psychologists believe that psychopathology is physiologically based.
B) Abnormal behavior may be best understood using a single theoretical framework.
C) Understanding abnormal behaviors requires an integration of models.
D) Sociocultural factors are the best explanation for disordered behavior.

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 33
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Factual

72) The diathesis-stress model of abnormal behavior assumes that
A) a person who has a genetic predisposition for a disorder will exhibit the disorder at some point in time.
B) biological and environmental factors interact to determine the likelihood that a person will exhibit abnormal behavior.
C) a “diathesis” from the environment interacts with biological influences to produce disordered behavior.
D) stress causes physiological changes that lead to disruptions in environmental supports.

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 33
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Factual

73) The biopsychosocial perspective, compared with the perspectives of Freud, Jung, and Rogers,
A) focuses on early developments as the diathesis.
B) adequately explains all disorders.
C) is broader than the other models.
D) assumes the nature of man to be good.

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 33
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Conceptual

74) Having a biological predisposition for a disorder means that a person
A) will develop the full syndrome over the life span.
B) has increased vulnerability to developing a disorder.
C) will only develop a partial manifestation of the problem behavior.
D) has a genetic mutation for the disorder.

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 33
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Factual

75) This model of abnormal behavior acknowledges an interaction between biological, psychological, and social factors in the development of mental health disorders.
A) biological model
B) sociocultural model
C) biopsychosocial model
D) psychological model

ANSWER: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 33
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Conceptual

76) Mario has just returned from his third deployment to Iraq. For several months after returning, he is unable to sleep and has difficulty dealing with flashbacks of mortar fire over the compound in which he worked. Using a biopsychosocial model, we might explain his problems as deriving from
A) the stress of deployment alone.
B) a diathesis, as well as the stress of deployment.
C) a lack of social support.
D) a failure in coping alone.

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 33
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Applied
True/False:

77) In considering whether a behavior is abnormal or normal, one must consider the context in which the behavior occurs.

ANSWER: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 3
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Factual

78) Defining “abnormal” as being “away from normal” is circular.

ANSWER: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 3
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Factual

79) A woman from Ecuador dresses colorfully and makes eye contact with others in church, while another woman from Japan dresses in quieter colors and does not make eye contact. This is an example of culture-bound syndrome.

ANSWER: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 5
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Applied

80) Most people with psychological disorders do not engage in dangerous behavior.

ANSWER: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 7
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Factual

81) Women and men experience the same rates of mental illness across all categories of disorders in the DSM-5.

ANSWER: FALSE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 9
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Factual

82) Symptoms of a given disorder may change as the person matures.

ANSWER: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 10
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Factual

83) Hippocrates was the earliest person thought to have attempted to classify abnormal behavior.

ANSWER: TRUE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 12
Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Factual

84) Hippocrates believed that hysteria only occurred in women.

ANSWER: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 12
Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Factual

85) The effect of a placebo on changing behavior or how one feels is usually temporary.

ANSWER: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 17
Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Factual

86) Freud believed that the early years of life had little impact on a person’s behavior but that a person’s inner life and conflicts determined psychological adjustment.

ANSWER: FALSE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 18
Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Factual

87) Freud called catharsis the “royal road to the unconscious.”

ANSWER: FALSE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 19
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Factual

88) Ego psychology, as opposed to psychoanalytic theory, focuses on conscious motivations and healthy functioning.

ANSWER: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 26
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Factual

89) The use of a hierarchy for systematic desensitization is founded on the operant conditioning work of B. F. Skinner.

ANSWER: FALSE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 27
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Factual

90) People need to actually perform a behavior to learn through vicarious reinforcement.

ANSWER: FALSE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 28
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Factual

91) The cognitive model views the negative thoughts often present with depression to be a result of disordered thinking.

ANSWER: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 29
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Factual

92) There is no single model of abnormal behavior that explains the nature and causes of all disorders.

ANSWER: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 32
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Factual

93) Modern scientists have moved away from trying to reduce all behavior to one single explanation.

ANSWER: TRUE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 33
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Factual

94) The biopsychosocial model of abnormal behavior proposes that biology alone is usually at the root of disordered behavior.

ANSWER: FALSE
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 33
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Conceptual

95) As a recent graduate of a Ph.D. program in Clinical Psychology, you have been schooled in the latest research in abnormal psychology. If you were trained in a model that evaluates multiple causes contributing to abnormality, you would most likely be labeled a strict behaviorist.

ANSWER: FALSE
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 33
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Applied
Essay:
Student answers will vary but should include elements of the suggested answers given below.

96) “Being different is not the equivalent of being psychologically abnormal.” Evaluate this statement, providing support for your position.

ANSWER: They are not equivalent. The behavior may not cause impairment in daily functioning nor may it have negative consequences for society. To the contrary, some “different” behavior may be beneficial to the person or to society.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 3-5
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Conceptual

97) Give an example of a behavior that may be perceived as normal or abnormal according to the “goodness-of-fit” model.

ANSWER: Any behavior that may be viewed as normal in one context but abnormal in another.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 4
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Conceptual

98) Explain how development and maturity influence our perceptions of the normality of a given behavior.

ANSWER: Behavior varies along the life span. What is normal and expected for a given age may be viewed as deviant or abnormal at another age. An example would be thumb sucking in young children as opposed to thumb sucking in adolescents.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 5-6
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Conceptual

99) Explain how developmental maturity has an impact on psychological disorders.

ANSWER: Developmental maturity affects when and how symptoms develop, what types of symptoms develop, and what kind of disorder occurs.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 10
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Conceptual

100) How does the concept of “cognitive maturity” contribute to the determination of certain disorders by age? Present an example to demonstrate your understanding.

ANSWER: The emergence of some disorders may be linked to factors related to cognitive development. For example, a key symptom of generalized anxiety disorders is worry over future events. Young children may not have the cognitive maturity to understand the concept of “future”; thus, many more cases occur later along the developmental age span.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 11
Topic: Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Skill: Applied

101) How did the ancient Greek physicians Hippocrates and Galen differ in their perspectives on hysteria?

ANSWER: Hippocrates believed that disorders such as hysteria or conversion disorders were the results of a wandering uterus, but Galen believed hysteria had a psychological cause.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 13
Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Factual

102) Dorthea Dix’s efforts toward moral treatment of the mentally ill in the U.S. led to the building of asylums. Unfortunately, this movement also had a negative impact on mentally ill persons. Identify the negative outcomes associated with this movement.

ANSWER: The movement led to increased numbers of asylums and became associated with permanent institutionalization, custodial care, isolation, and little hope.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 16
Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Conceptual

103) When scientists discovered that syphilis caused general paresis, the finding was a significant advance for psychology. Discuss the importance of this finding.

ANSWER: The discovery that syphilis was linked to general paresis established a biological basis for the causes of some psychological disturbances.
Diff: 2 Page 17
Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Conceptual

104) Josef Breuer gave us the “talking cure” through his work with Anna O. Explain the nature and assumption of this treatment approach using Anna’s case details.

ANSWER: Under hypnosis, Anna revealed details she could not recall in a conscious state. After Anna related details of distressing events in her past, her symptoms went away. This talking cure approach laid the foundation for a new approach to mental disorders.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 17
Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Conceptual

105) Outline Pavlov’s model for classical conditioning using his experiment with dogs. Label all of the elements of the paradigm.

ANSWER: CS (bell) => UCS (meat powder) => UCR/CR (salivating)
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 20
Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior and Its Treatment
Skill: Conceptual

106) New technologies in neuroscience have advanced our understanding of psychological disorders. Discuss the concept of “biological scarring” as it relates to PTSD.

ANSWER: Biological scarring is a term applied to brain changes that appear to result from years of living with disorders such as PTSD. The brain changes in response to the disorder.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 24
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Conceptual

107) Compare and contrast classical and operant conditioning.

ANSWER: Classical conditioning involves reflex behavior and the elements of CS, UCS, UCR and CR. The pairing of the CS serves a cue function that the UCS is coming; UCS elicits the UCR. Many spontaneous behaviors occur without first being elicited by the UCS. Operant conditioning involves such a behavior being strengthened by its consequences through reinforcement and punishment.
Diff: 3 Page 20, 27
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Conceptual

108) Define “punishment” from a behavioral perspective and explain the forms it might take. Why is it important to include a reinforced alternative behavior when employing punishment?

ANSWER: Punishment may be the application of something aversive or the removal of something positive. It is directed toward reducing an unwanted behavior. If an alternative behavior is not reinforced, the punished behavior may return.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 28
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Conceptual

109) The sociocultural models of abnormality stand in stark contrast to models that propose that the sources of disordered behavior lie within the individual. What factors influence the expression of maladaptive behavior according to this model? How do they mediate the expression of these behaviors?

ANSWER: Abnormal behavior must be understood within the context of social and cultural forces. Examples of these include gender, social class, and interpersonal resources. Gender roles determine the cultural expression of what is acceptable for each gender. Social factors such as hunger, work, and domestic violence for women make them more vulnerable as a group for the development of a psychological disorder. Socioeconomic status may affect the area in which one lives and one’s vulnerability to negative situations or events. For example, Hurricane Andrew hit a low-income area, resulting in higher rates of PTSD for Hispanic and African American children compared with white children. Social support in form of neighbors and friends is disrupted as people are scattered during a natural disaster.
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 30-31
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Conceptual

110) The biopsychosocial model assumes a diathesis-stress perspective. Explain this statement and provide an example to illustrate your understanding.

ANSWER: The biopsychosocial model assumes that multiple factors interact to influence behavior. The diathesis-stress perspective assumes that psychological disorders may have a biological basis. Having a predisposition toward a disorder is not sufficient to produce the disorder. However, this vulnerability, in combination with stressful environmental circumstances, may lead to psychological disorders.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 33
Topic: Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment
Skill: Conceptual

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