Abnormal Psychology An Integrative Approach 4th Canadian Edition Test Bank

$35.00

StumbleUponEmail

Description

Abnormal Psychology An Integrative Approach 4th Canadian Edition Test Bank

Chapter 1: Abnormal Behaviour in Historical Context

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. When using the psychological disorder criteria, when would an individual be assessed as having a cognitive dysfunction?
a. when his or her thought processes are totally out of touch with reality
b. when he or she is extremely distressed
c. when his or her behaviour violates social norms
d. when he or she avoids interactions with other people
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 3 BLM: Higher Order

2. George, a male college student, began feeling sad and lonely. Although he is still able to go to classes and work at his job, George finds himself feeling down much of the time and he worries about what is happening to him. Which part of the definition of abnormality applies to his situation?
a. personal distress
b. lack of social support
c. impaired functioning
d. violation of societal norms
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 3 BLM: Higher Order

3. Frank drinks three bottles of wine each day and believes he would be fine if people would just “mind their own business.” Which criterion for abnormality is absent from this scenario?
a. objective harm to others
b. personal distress
c. maladaptiveness
d. qualitative uniqueness
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 4 BLM: Higher Order

4. Popular musician Lady Gaga has performed with blood spurting out of her clothes. Why might having blood spurt from her clothes be considered abnormal?
a. because her behaviour demonstrates a sense of subjective discomfort
b. because she has an inability to distinguish right from wrong
c. because it is a deviation from the what is typical in her society
d. because she shows an inability to function effectively
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 5 BLM: Higher Order

5. In most Western societies, what happens when a person enters a trance state and believes he or she is possessed?
a. The person is believed to be suffering from a psychotic disorder.
b. The person is diagnosed with a dissociative disorder
c. The person may be viewed as having a psychological disorder, depending on their cultural background.
d. The person can be cured with antipsychotic medication.
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 5 BLM: Higher Order
6. Ron has just been diagnosed with schizophrenia and hospitalized. What would Thomas Szasz most likely argue?
a. Ron should not be hospitalized because doing so will only make his symptoms worse.
b. Ron’s behaviour does not represent an illness like diabetes, and “schizophrenia” is merely a label applied on the basis of highly subjective judgments.
c. Ron’s schizophrenia is a serious illness that is best treated with a combination of drugs and family therapy.
d. Ron should be assessed further because mistakes in diagnosis are made frequently.
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 5 BLM: Higher Order

7. What is psychopathology?
a. the medications used to treat some psychological disorders
b. the criteria used to define psychological disorders
c. the psychological therapies used to treat psychological disorders
d. the scientific study of psychological disorders
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 6 BLM: Remember

8. Who can call themselves a psychotherapist?
a. clinical psychologists and psychiatrists only
b. people who provide therapy but who do not hold medical degrees
c. people who followed in the traditions of Sigmund Freud
d. anyone who is trained to treat psychopathological disorders
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 6 BLM: Remember

9. After graduation, two of your friends express an interest in psychology careers. Carl wants to work with relatively healthy individuals who are experiencing adjustment or vocational difficulties. Anna wishes to focus on the more severe psychological disorders and conduct research into their causes. Because you are studying abnormal psychology, they ask you for career advice. What do you tell them?
a. Carl should study psychology at the graduate level, and Anna should apply to medical school.
b. Carl should study clinical psychology at the graduate level, and Anna should study counselling psychology at the graduate level.
c. Both of them should apply to medical school.
d. Anna should study clinical psychology at the graduate level, and Carl should study counselling psychology at the graduate level.
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 7 BLM: Higher Order

10. Which of the following is a criteria for a scientist-practitioner?
a. They must hold an M.D.
b. They must conduct research.
c. They must be psychologists.
d. They must work testing the efficacy of various drug treatments.
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 7 BLM: Remember
11. Louie was barking like a dog and walking on his hands and knees. A professional thought the cause of Louie’s problem was an excess of a particular neurotransmitter, and prescribed a drug to treat him. What kind of professional was this most likely?
a. a clinical psychologist
b. a psychiatric nurse
c. a psychiatric social worker
d. a psychiatrist
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 7 BLM: Higher Order

12. What is the relationship between a presenting problem and a clinical description?
a. Obtaining the patient’s clinical description is the first step in determining what the patient’s presenting problem is.
b. Describing the patient’s presenting problem is the first step in determining the patient’s clinical description.
c. The presenting problem refers to the current status of a distressed individual; the clinical description refers to the treatment plan.
d. The presenting problem refers to symptoms that last only a short time, whereas the clinical description refers to symptoms that are chronic.
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 8 BLM: Higher Order

13. Statistical data are relevant to researchers. For example, one major epidemiological study found that about 7.8 percent of people in North America have had a mood disorder at some point in their lives and 3.7 percent have experienced a mood disorder over the past year. What do the 7.8 percent and 3.7 percent statistics refer to, respectively?
a. incidence; prevalence
b. incidence; recurrence
c. proportion; prevalence
d. prevalence; incidence
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 8 BLM: Higher Order

14. Psychological disorders can be described as following a typical course or individual pattern. Disorders that tend to last a long time follow one type of course, whereas disorders that show a discontinuous, repetitive pattern follow another type of course. What are these courses, respectively?
a. chronic; episodic
b. chronic; time-limited
c. pervasive; time-limited
d. insidious; recurrent
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 8 BLM: Higher Order

15. If a psychological disorder is said to have an acute onset, how did the symptoms develop?
a. atypically
b. suddenly
c. gradually
d. sporadically
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 8 BLM: Remember

16. When 20-year-old Larry was first identified as suffering from schizophrenia, his family wanted to know how the disorder would progress and how it would affect him in the future. In medical terms, what did the family want to know?
a. Larry’s psychosocial profile
b. Larry’s pathology
c. Larry’s diagnosis
d. Larry’s prognosis
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 8 BLM: Higher Order

17. Why is a patient’s age important information in the clinical description?
a. because young children do not experience true psychological disorders
b. because older adults are reluctant to report psychological symptoms
c. because children are not reliable sources of information about symptoms
d. because disorders occurring in childhood may be expressed differently at older ages
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 8 BLM: Higher Order

18. During more superstitious times, which of the following was thought to be the cause of abnormal behaviour?
a. a demonic possession
b. black bile
c. homosexuality
d. punishment of the illiterate
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 11 BLM: Remember

19. Which of the following 18th century terms for psychiatric conditions is related to a pseudoscientific explanation for mental illness?
a. lunatic
b. mental defective
c. maniac
d. idiot
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 11 BLM: Higher Order

20. Which of the following is a science?
a. astronomy
b. parapsychology
c. graphology
d. astrology
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 11 BLM: Higher Order

21. Alonso believes that Hedwig’s behaviour disturbance is due to an excess of black bile. Whose ideas about psychiatry does Alonso’s belief best align with?
a. Blueler
b. Aristotle
c. Newton
d. Galen
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 12 BLM: Higher Order

22. You comment to your roommate that you are feeling despondent and lethargic. Your friend is in Medieval Studies and says “Well that’s probably because you’ve been committing a deadly sin.” Which sin is she referring to?
a. gluttony
b. lust
c. sloth
d. greed
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 12 BLM: Higher Order

23. In the 14th and 15th centuries, which of the following was a competing explanation of the supernatural view of mental illness?
a. An unhealthy lifestyle contributed to mental illness, but the effects were curable.
b. Head injuries were often the cause of abnormal behaviour and such damage was incurable.
c. Insanity was a natural phenomenon caused by stress, and it was curable.
d. Insanity was genetic and incurable.
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 12 BLM: Remember

24. In the 14th century, why did the physician treating France’s King Charles VI have him moved to the countryside?
a. to cure him of hysteria
b. to restore the balance in his humors
c. to keep him away from his family
d. to keep him away from sin and temptation
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 12 BLM: Higher Order

25. According to the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates, which of the following factors could negatively influence psychological functioning?
a. family stress
b. birth order
c. religion
d. supernatural forces
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 12 BLM: Remember

26. Who was the first theorist to argue that genetics were related to abnormal functioning?
a. Hippocrates
b. Galen
c. Freud
d. Grey
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 12 BLM: Remember

27. You are listening to old musical tunes, including “Melancholy Baby.” Your friends are impressed when you tell them that “melancholic,” referring to a depressive personality, derives from the Greek term melancholer. What does this term mean?
a. yellow bile
b. phlegm
c. blood
d. black bile
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 12 BLM: Higher Order

28. According to Hippocrates’ humoral theory, which of the following best characterizes the choleric personality?
a. hot tempered
b. kind
c. lacking affect
d. easygoing
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 12 BLM: Remember

29. Based on Hippocrates’ humoral theory, what type of person does the term “sanguine” describe?
a. humorous
b. pessimistic
c. pale
d. cheerful
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 12 BLM: Remember

30. Bloodletting, often through the use of leeches, was a treatment devised centuries ago. What was this treatment used for?
a. to reduce excessive blood in the brain
b. to correct a chemical imbalance in the brain
c. to reduce the negative effects of stress
d. to restore the balance of humors
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 12 BLM: Remember

31. Suppose you know someone lived sometime between 1100 AD and 1900 AD but you don’t know the exact years and you had to place a bet on which treatment for a psychological disorder they were most likely to have had. Which treatment would you bet on?
a. induced seizures
b. bloodletting
c. drilling through the skull
d. exorcism
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 12 BLM: Higher Order

32. Induced vomiting was a 17th-century treatment for depression. As described in Anatomy of Melancholy (1621), this could be accomplished by eating what?
a. tobacco
b. ice
c. raw meat
d. onions
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 12 BLM: Remember

33. The concept of hysteria traditionally meant physical symptoms for which no organic pathology could be found. Which of the following terms is now used to refer to this concept?
a. neurosis
b. anxiety disorders
c. delusions
d. somato symptom disorders
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 12–13 BLM: Remember

34. Why are hysterical disorders no longer considered to be caused by a “wandering” uterus?
a. because men also suffer from hysterical disorders
b. because of greater knowledge of physiology
c. because the theory is considered insulting to women
d. because when the uterus is removed, symptoms tend to remain
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 13 BLM: Higher Order

35. In ancient Greece, a woman suffering from hysteria might be told that her condition could be cured by which of the following?
a. induced seizures
b. bloodletting
c. marriage
d. rest and relaxation
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 13 BLM: Higher Order

36. William lived in the 19th century and had the cognitive disorder known as “general paresis.” Based on this information, what other disease do you know William suffered from?
a. epilepsy
b. hysteria
c. malaria
d. syphilis
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 13 BLM: Higher Order

37. John Grey was an important figure in 19th-century psychiatry in the United States. What did he believe was always the cause of mental illness?
a. physical causes
b. social/environmental influences
c. psychological factors
d. unknown influences
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 14 BLM: Remember

38. You are a psychiatrist in the 1930s who has decided to begin treating your patients diagnosed with schizophrenia with a new treatment known as “electroconvulsive therapy” instead of the traditional “insulin shock therapy.” What is the most likely reason for this decision?
a. You believe that insulin therapy is too expensive.
b. You believe that insulin therapy is too risky.
c. You believe that insulin therapy is not effective.
d. You believe that insulin therapy is unethical.
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 14 BLM: Higher Order
39. Why was electroconvulsive therapy originally used as a therapy for schizophrenia?
a. because it was (mistakenly) observed that schizophrenia was rarely found in people with epilepsy
b. because it was (mistakenly) observed that it could reduce brain seizures, providing a cure
c. because it was (mistakenly) observed to induce convulsions and stimulated appetite in psychotic patients
d. because it was (mistakenly) observed to alleviate the depression that often accompanies schizophrenia
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 14 BLM: Remember

40. In the middle of the 20th century, which of the following were some of the first effective drugs for psychological disorders?
a. benzodiazepines to treat depression
b. bromides and opium for sedation
c. insulin and neuroleptics for sedation
d. neuroleptics for psychotic symptoms
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 14 BLM: Remember

41. In many parts of the world during the 1970s, what would an individual suffering from an anxiety disorder most likely have been prescribed?
a. bromides
b. neuroleptics
c. benzodiazepines
d. electroconvulsive therapy
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 14 BLM: Remember

42. The discovery of certain tranquilizers made it possible to control psychotic symptoms, including hallucinations and delusions. What kind of drugs were these tranquilizers?
a. neuroleptics
b. bromides
c. benzodiazepines
d. opiates
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 14 BLM: Remember

43. In the late 1800s, there was an emphasis on biological causes of mental disorders, which ironically reduced interest in treatments for mental patients. Why did this happen?
a. because it was thought that hospital staff were not adequately trained to administer new treatments
b. because it was thought that patients would improve more rapidly if they were not hospitalized
c. because it was thought that mental illness due to brain pathology was incurable
d. because it was thought that physicians should devote more time to the physically ill
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 14 BLM: Remember
44. Why was Emil Kraeplin’s lasting contribution to modern psychiatry in the area of diagnosis and classification of psychological disorders, rather than that of treatment?
a. because of his discomfort with actually working with patients
b. because of his conviction that better diagnosis was necessary for more effective treatment
c. because of his belief that these disorders were due to brain pathology
d. because of his belief in the influence of the social environment in mental illness
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 14–15 BLM: Higher Order

45. For much of our recorded history, deviant behaviour was considered a reflection of the battle between which of the following?
a. the natural and the supernatural
b. good and evil
c. the brain and the body
d. the soul and the mind
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 15 BLM: Remember

46. In the psychosocial approach called “moral therapy,” what does the term “moral” mean?
a. emotional
b. ethical
c. religious
d. story
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 15 BLM: Remember

47. Whose work lead to a decline in moral therapy?
a. Grey
b. Dix
c. Hinckes
d. Freud
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 16 BLM: Remember

48. Which of the following was common in asylums in the mid-18th century?
a. physical restraints and seclusion
b. individual attention from the hospital staff
c. lectures on interesting subjects for hospitalized patients
d. opportunities for normal social interaction
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 16 BLM: Remember

49. When did moral therapy work best?
a. when it was used with groups of patients, rather than through individual attention to patients
b. when the number of patients in an institution was 200 or fewer
c. when it was used in populations of immigrants and the poor
d. when it was supplemented by the use of restraint and seclusion
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 16 BLM: Remember
50. What movement did Dorothea Dix start?
a. the mental hygiene movement
b. the moral movement
c. the humane therapy movement
d. the deinstitutionalization movement
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 16 BLM: Remember

51. What is the most notable contribution of Clarence Hinckes?
a. He argued that mental illness is treatable with a combination of drugs and individualized attention.
b. He argued that mental illness was incurable but more humane institutions were needed to care for the mentally ill.
c. He argued that mental illness was caused by brain pathology and, therefore, was incurable and that therapy should consist of learning to cope with symptoms.
d. He argued that mental illness was treatable, which was contrary to the prevailing view at the time.
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 17 BLM: Higher Order

52. Anton Mesmer, an early 18th-century physician, purported to cure patients by unblocking the flow of a bodily fluid he called “animal magnetism.” Benjamin Franklin’s double-blind experiment indicated that any effectiveness of Mesmer’s methods was actually due to which of the following?
a. undetectable magnetic fields
b. chemically induced humoral balance
c. the power of suggestion
d. mental telepathy
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 17 BLM: Higher Order

53. What did Jean Charcot find when he used a variation of Mesmer’s?
a. These methods were effective in treating a number of psychological disorders.
b. These methods were no more effective than previous methods he had used.
c. Patients were better able to understand the link between their emotional problems and their psychological disorder.
d. The symptoms of some patients actually worsened.
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 17–18 BLM: Remember

54. Realizing patients are often unaware of material previously recalled under hypnosis, Charcot, Breuer, and Freud hypothesized the existence of a concept considered one of the most important developments in the history of psychopathology. What was that concept?
a. psychosis
b. the unconscious mind
c. catharsis
d. repression
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 18 BLM: Higher Order
55. What did Freud and Breuer discover about the process known as “catharsis”?
a. They discovered that it reduces psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions.
b. They discovered that it occurs beyond the conscious awareness of the patient.
c. They discovered that it leads to a fuller understanding of the relationship between current emotions and earlier events.
d. They discovered that the power of suggestion subconsciously changed behaviour.
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 18 BLM: Remember

56. In 1895, how did neurologist Josef Breuer treat Anna O.’s hysterical symptoms?
a. using mesmerism
b. using hydrotherapy
c. using the placebo effect
d. using hypnosis
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 18–19 BLM: Remember

57. Which of the following is NOT included as part of Freud’s structure of the mind?
a. psyche
b. superego
c. ego
d. id
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 19 BLM: Remember

58. In Freudian theory, the terms “libido” and “thanatos” represent two basic but opposing drives. What are they?
a. life and death
b. pleasure and pain
c. sex and celibacy
d. good and evil
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 19 BLM: Remember

59. You have just read a newspaper article about a savage rape and murder. You wonder how anyone could commit such a horrible crime. Then you recall from your study of Freudian theory that anyone could be a killer or rapist if certain impulses are not well controlled. Which of the following best describes these impulses?
a. intrapsychic forces
b. a libidinous desire
c. the drive of the id
d. primitive forces
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 19 BLM: Higher Order

60. The ego operates according to one principle, and the id operates according to another principle. What are they, respectively?
a. reality; pleasure
b. conscious; unconscious
c. pleasure; aggression
d. reality; aggression
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 19 BLM: Higher Order

61. According to psychoanalytic theory, what process did Jeanie develop early in life to ensure that she could adapt to the demands of the real world while still finding ways to meeting her basic needs?
a. her id
b. her conscience
c. her superego
d. her ego
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 19 BLM: Remember

62. According to psychoanalytic theory, the id operates according to the pleasure principle. What does that mean?
a. It utilizes secondary-process thinking.
b. It thinks in an unemotional, logical, and rational manner.
c. It is sexual, aggressive, selfish, and envious.
d. It adheres to social rules and regulations.
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 19 BLM: Higher Order

63. A classmate in your psychology course is worried about the selfish and sometimes dangerous drives of the id. Which of the following should you say to your classmate to address this fear?
a. Because id impulses are usually part of conscious awareness, we can learn to control them.
b. Id fantasies never become part of conscious awareness, so we never act on them.
c. Each of us develops an ego to help us behave more realistically.
d. The selfish drives of the id are transformed to positive emotional expressions.
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 19 BLM: Higher Order

64. According to psychoanalytic theory, what is the role of the ego?
a. to counteract the aggressive and sexual drives of the id
b. to maximize pleasure and reduce tension
c. to mediate conflict between the id and the superego
d. to increase self-esteem and a strong sense of identity
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 19 BLM: Remember

65. If you were asked to explain Freud’s structure of the mind to a friend who was unfamiliar with psychology, you might use an organizational analogy in which the id would be the employee who comes to work late and takes very long lunch hours and the ego would be the manager. Which of the following would be the superego?
a. the company president
b. a salesperson
c. the building security guard
d. a client
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 19 BLM: Higher Order

66. According to psychoanalytic theory, what do the conflicts between the id and the superego often lead to?
a. anxiety
b. anger
c. violent behaviour
d. depression
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 20 BLM: Higher Order

67. According to Freudian theory, anxiety is a signal for the ego to marshal its mechanisms of defence. This is a function of which of the following?
a. reality-based actions
b. conscious efforts to maintain control
c. unconscious protective processes
d. primitive emotional responses
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 20 BLM: Higher Order

68. Which of the following is a characteristic of how defence mechanisms affect coping styles?
a. They are dependent upon the age of the person and how they are used.
b. They can be either adaptive or maladaptive.
c. They are self-defeating.
d. They are adaptive.
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 20 BLM: Higher Order

69. Trent is in psychoanalysis and states to his therapist that he thinks that his wife is considering having an affair with her co-worker. Later on in the session, Trent admits that he is tempted to start an affair with his own co-worker. What defence mechanism was Trent displaying when he accused his wife of thinking about being unfaithful?
a. sublimation
b. projection
c. displacement
d. denial
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 20 BLM: Higher Order

70. Mrs. Babcock received a very poor rating from her supervisor, who had been constantly criticizing her in front of her co-workers. When she got home, her children ran up to greet her, all talking at once. She responded by yelling, “Leave me alone! Can’t you see I’m tired?” According to psychoanalytic theory, which defence mechanism does this situation illustrate?
a. projection
b. displacement
c. repression
d. rationalization
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 20 BLM: Higher Order

71. Jack and Kelly have been dating for six months. Kelly is not interested in continuing their relationship. She calls Jack and informs him that although she cares about him, she must end their relationship. Jack laughs and says, “Funny joke.” Kelly states, “This is not a joke; I am serious.” Jack then says, “I’ll pick you up in an hour for dinner.” Which defence mechanism does this example illustrate?
a. displacement
b. projection
c. denial
d. repression
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 20 BLM: Higher Order

72. After receiving the results of four different sets of tests, Mary’s doctor tells her that she has cancer. Mary states, “This can’t be true; I’m going to get a second opinion.” Which defence mechanism does this example illustrate?
a. displacement
b. denial
c. projection
d. repression
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 20 BLM: Higher Order

73. In which defence mechanism does an individual substitute behaviour, thoughts, or feelings that are the direct opposite of unacceptable ones?
a. displacement
b. repression
c. rationalization
d. reaction formation
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 20 BLM: Higher Order

74. Which of the following is an example of a healthy defence mechanism?
a. sublimation
b. projection
c. denial
d. repression
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 20 BLM: Remember

75. A four-year-old girl sucks her thumb, a teenager binges on food, and an adult woman bites her fingernails. According to the Freudian theory of psychosexual development, what underlies all of these behaviours?
a. repression of aggressive impulses
b. a fixation at the oral stage of psychosexual development
c. a trauma during the toilet-training phase
d. denial of unacceptable feelings, thoughts, or wishes
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 20 BLM: Higher Order

76. The Oedipus complex is the psychosexual conflict occurring during the phallic stage of development in boys. How is this complex characterized?
a. by love for the mother and feelings of anger and envy toward the father
b. by a repressed need for oral gratification
c. by a love for the father and feelings of repulsion toward the mother
d. by a repressed need for genital self-stimulation
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 21 BLM: Higher Order

77. The Electra complex is the psychosexual conflict that occurs at the phallic stage of development in girls. How is this complex characterized?
a. by latency lust
b. by feelings of anger and envy toward the mother
c. by castration anxiety
d. by a desire to replace the mother and possess the father
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 21 BLM: Higher Order

78. As compared to her father, Sigmund Freud, Anna Freud (1895–1982) focused her work on the way our behaviour is influenced. Which of the following did she write?
a. Id and the Mechanisms of Defense
b. Our Neurosis and the Mechanisms of Defense
c. Our Self-actualization and the Mechanisms of Defense
d. Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 21 BLM: Remember

79. According to Anna Freud’s ego psychology, when does abnormal behaviour develop?
a. when the ego does not develop normally due to psychosexual conflicts at the oral stage of development
b. when the ego is deficient in regulating such functions as delaying and controlling impulses
c. when there are social and psychological barriers to achieving self-actualization
d. when introjected objects become an integrated part of the ego
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 21 BLM: Remember

80. In contrast to Freud, how did Jung and Adler view human nature?
a. They believed that cognitive and personality factors shape human potential.
b. They believed that humans are born with a strong drive toward self-actualization.
c. They believed that the ego is much stronger than Freud postulated.
d. They believed that humans are shaped through learning from their environment.
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 21 BLM: Higher Order

81. According to object relations theory, what does the concept of “introjection” refer to?
a. a strong drive toward self-actualization and self assessment
b. the process of internalizing the images, memories, or values of an important person in one’s life
c. the ability to adapt successfully to one’s environment
d. projecting one’s own unacceptable feelings onto another individual or object
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 21 BLM: Remember

82. What was Erikson’s greatest contribution to psychoanalytical theorizing?
a. his idea that development occurs across the life span
b. his idea that sexual arousal and interest occur during the latency stage
c. his idea that societal factors influence our behaviour
d. his idea that intrapsychic conflicts are resolved in early childhood
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 21 BLM: Remember

83. In classical psychoanalysis, why is the process whereby the therapist interprets a patient’s dreams often difficult?
a. because the patient may resist uncovering repressed material and deny the interpretation
b. because patients often forget their dreams
c. because the patient may relate to the therapist much as he or she did toward a parent figure
d. because the therapist may wish not to upset the patient with a negative interpretation
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 22 BLM: Remember
84. In psychoanalytic psychotherapy, which of the following is most important for patients?
a. to strive to reach their full potential
b. to remain emotionally detached from the analyst
c. to learn more adaptive coping mechanisms
d. to describe the content of their dreams to the analyst
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 22 BLM: Remember

85. In classical psychoanalysis, what does the concept of “transference” refer to?
a. the process whereby the patient falsely attributes his or her own unacceptable feelings or thoughts to the therapist
b. the process whereby the therapist projects some of his or her own personal feelings onto the patient
c. the process whereby the patient relates to the therapist as he or she would toward a parent figure
d. the process whereby the patient directs potentially maladaptive impulses to socially acceptable behaviour
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 22 BLM: Remember

86. How does psychodynamic psychotherapy differ from classical (Freudian) psychoanalysis?
a. It emphasizes the goal of personality reconstruction.
b. It focuses more on social and interpersonal issues.
c. It considers past experiences important.
d. It requires a long-term commitment on the part of the person being analyzed.
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 22 BLM: Higher Order

87. How do most mental health professionals view psychoanalysis as a treatment technique?
a. It has been proven effective.
b. It has been subject to careful measurement criteria.
c. It is basically unscientific.
d. It is noted for consistency in analytic interpretation.
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 22 BLM: Remember

88. Who is the concept of a “hierarchy of needs” most closely associated with?
a. Carl Rogers
b. Anna Freud
c. Abraham Maslow
d. Carl Jung
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 23 BLM: Remember

89. According to Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, individuals will be unable to achieve high levels of self-actualization and self-esteem unless which of the following has taken place?
a. unless they have been raised with unconditional positive regard from primary caregivers
b. unless they have first met more basic human requirements such as food, sex, and friendship
c. unless they have developed sufficient ego strength
d. unless they have gratified their basic needs and satisfied their drive for physical pleasure through the five psychosexual stages of development
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 23 BLM: Remember

90. Which of the following is NOT associated with the humanistic theories of Carl Rogers?
a. hierarchy of needs
b. unconditional positive regard
c. empathy
d. client-centred therapy
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 23 BLM: Remember

91. What do humanistic therapists regard as the most positive influence in facilitating human growth?
a. therapist interpretations of the patient’s verbalizations
b. self-esteem
c. ego development
d. relationships (including the therapeutic relationship)
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 23 BLM: Remember

92. How does Gestalt therapy differ from psychoanalytic therapy?
a. In Gestalt therapy, there is no delving into past experiences.
b. In Gestalt therapy, the critical element is the therapist’s unconditional positive regard for the patient.
c. In Gestalt therapy, there is little emphasis on the here and now.
d. In Gestalt therapy, there is little or no training required for therapists.
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 23 BLM: Remember

93. Sarah underwent chemotherapy treatment for cancer. She now reports experiencing mild nausea when she drives by the hospital and severe nausea when she enters the hospital where her chemotherapy was administered. What phenomenon best explains these reactions to stimuli she associates with her chemotherapy?
a. reconditioning
b. introspection
c. operant conditioning
d. stimulus generalization
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 24 BLM: Higher Order

94. A dog had been conditioned to salivate to the sound of a bell because of its association with the presentation of food. Later, when exposed to the bell without food for a long period, the dog eventually stopped salivating to the sound of the bell. What is this phenomenon known as?
a. extinction
b. response fading
c. conditioned forgetting
d. stimulus fading
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 24 BLM: Higher Order
95. Why is Watson and Rayner’s experiment in which they induced a fear of white, furry objects in Little Albert famous?
a. It was the first real-life demonstration of operant conditioning.
b. It was the first recorded lawsuit made against the psychology profession for unethical behaviour.
c. It was the first recorded example of inducing fear of an object in a laboratory setting.
d. It proved the law of effect.
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 24 BLM: Higher Order

96. What does Wolpe’s technique of systematic desensitization involve?
a. reinforcing successive approximations to a final behaviour or set of behaviours
b. gradually introducing the feared objects or situations so that fear can be extinguished
c. gradually reinforcing fearless behaviour and punishing fear responses
d. reinforcing an incompatible response to a feared situation
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 25 BLM: Remember

97. Jason has been having a lot of difficulty because of his irrational fears. His doctor advises Jason to participate in an anxiety-reduction procedure based on the work of Joseph Wolpe. What is this procedure?
a. aversive conditioning
b. person-centred therapy
c. systematic desensitization
d. mesmerism
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 25 BLM: Higher Order

98. You are in a mall when a young child begins to scream and shout because his parents will not buy him the latest toy. What would B.F. Skinner most likely say about the child’s behaviour?
a. It is an expression of repressed Oedipal anger toward his father and it will diminish naturally as he gets older.
b. It is a classically conditioned response to being in the mall.
c. It would be most effectively altered over the long term by simply ignoring it.
d. It would be most effectively altered over the long term by scolding him and positively reinforcing more appropriate behaviour.
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 26 BLM: Higher Order

99. Why are operant conditioning techniques being applied in Canadian hospital settings?
a. to increase patients’ insight into their fears and wishes
b. to reduce psychiatric patients’ undesirable behaviour and increase their desirable behaviour
c. to reduce patients’ fear of surgery
d. to increase nursing staff’s empathy
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 26 BLM: Remember

100. What are two recent developments that have contributed to a multidimensional, integrative approach to psychopathology?
a. the introduction of highly specialized drugs and more sophisticated training for mental health workers
b. increasingly sophisticated medical technology and the realization that no one influence on behaviour ever occurs in isolation
c. deinstitutionalization and the growth of humanistic therapies
d. an increase in public mental health education and less reliance on drugs to control abnormal behaviour
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 26 BLM: Remember

ESSAY

1. Discuss the criteria for abnormality and the meanings of psychological dysfunction, personal distress, and atypical or not culturally expected behaviour.

ANS:
Student responses will vary.

PTS: 1 REF: 3–6 BLM: Remember

2. Discuss the controversy surrounding the use of medical diagnoses in the case of psychological disorders. Explain the position taken by Thomas Szasz.

ANS:
Student responses will vary.

PTS: 1 REF: 6 BLM: Remember

3. Describe the educational and professional differences between psychologists and psychiatrists. In Canada, who is permitted to hold him- or herself out to the public as a “psychologist” (e.g., in advertising)?

ANS:
Student responses will vary.

PTS: 1 REF: 7 BLM: Higher Order

4. Discuss the evolution of biological treatments for psychological disorders across the 20th century. Explain the development and use of insulin shock therapy and electroconvulsive therapy in the first part of the century, and describe the major drug therapies developed in the latter half.

ANS:
Student responses will vary.

PTS: 1 REF: 14–15 BLM: Higher Order
5. Describe the psychosocial approach to mental disorders called moral therapy. Mention key figures who contributed to or promoted this approach. Discuss whether this approach was effective in improving conditions for the mentally ill. Explain the reasons for the decline of moral therapy.

ANS:
Student responses will vary.

PTS: 1 REF: 15–17 BLM: Remember

6. Explain the basic assumptions of psychoanalytic theory. Refer to concepts such as anxiety, defence mechanisms, and psychosexual development. Use specific examples to illustrate these concepts.

ANS:
Student responses will vary.

PTS: 1 REF: 17–23 BLM: Remember

7. Compare and contrast the three traditional models of abnormal behaviour: supernatural, psychological, and biological. Mention key aspects of the explanations of abnormal behaviour and treatments of the mentally ill associated with each model.

ANS:
Student responses will vary.

PTS: 1 REF: 19–23 BLM: Higher Order

8. Compare and contrast classical psychoanalysis and psychodynamic psychotherapy. Note the criticisms of classical psychoanalysis, and explain why it is more of historical than of current interest.

ANS:
Student responses will vary.

PTS: 1 REF: 21–22 BLM: Remember

9. Compare the basic assumptions and techniques of behaviour therapy versus humanistic therapy. Mention significant figures who contributed to each approach and the key concepts associated with those individuals.

ANS:
Student responses will vary.

PTS: 1 REF: 23–27 BLM: Remember

10. Identify and explain the developments in the 1990s that contributed to a multidimensional, integrative approach to psychopathology. Describe the contributions that cognitive science and neuroscience have made to our expanding knowledge about psychopathology.

ANS:
Student responses will vary.

PTS: 1 REF: 27 BLM: Higher Order

Reviews

There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “Abnormal Psychology An Integrative Approach 4th Canadian Edition Test Bank”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *