Abnormal Psychology Changing World 9th Edition Test Bank

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Abnormal Psychology Changing World 9th Edition Test Bank

1

Introduction and Methods of Research

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Which emotional concern has developed in the police photographer who described his
crime scene experiences?
a. anger c. fear
b. sadness d. loneliness

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 2
Topic: Chapter Introduction
Textbook LO: Introduction
Skill: Factual

2. In “Cowering Under the Covers,” the woman with bipolar disorder
reports that when she goes beyond the stage of feeling exhilaration, she _________.
a. becomes manic
b. experiences calm
c. develops suicidal thoughts
d. argues with her husband

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 3
Topic: Chapter Introduction
Textbook LO: Introduction
Skill: Factual

3. Thomas, the young man with paranoid schizophrenia and major depression,
experienced severe symptoms until he ______.
a. received two months of treatment in the psychiatric hospital
b. found the correct medication
c. underwent electroconvulsive therapy
d. was given a prefrontal lobotomy

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page: 3
Topic: Chapter Introduction
Textbook LO: 1.1
Skill: Factual

4. An abnormal behavior pattern that is associated with states of intense emotional distress or an impaired ability to function is a(n) ______.
a. abreaction c. perceptual set
b. reaction formation d. psychological disorder

ANSWER: D
Diff: 1 Page: 3
Topic: Chapter Introduction
Textbook LO: 1.1
Skill: Factual

5. Abnormal psychology deals chiefly with ______.
a. diseases c. abnormal behaviors
b. traits d. problems of immaturity

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 3
Topic: Chapter Introduction
Textbook LO: 1.1
Skill: Factual

6. The branch of psychology that deals with the description, causes, and treatment of abnormal
behavior patterns is ______ psychology.
a. abnormal c. evolutionary
b. social d. developmental

ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page: 3
Topic: Chapter Introduction
Textbook LO: 1.1
Skill: Factual

7. According to the World Health Organization, which of the 17 countries surveyed had the highest rates of diagnosable psychological disorders?
a. France c. Haiti
b. United States d. Latvia

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page: 4
Topic: Chapter Introduction
Textbook LO: 1.1
Skill: Factual

8. The term mental disorder is derived from which of the following models?
a. epigenetic c. medical
b. sociological d. psychological

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 4
Topic: Chapter Introduction
Textbook LO: 1.1
Skill: Factual

9. Who is affected by abnormal behavior?
a. Only those who are mentally ill themselves
b. Only those who are related to individuals with a mental illness
c. Only those who work with individuals with a mental illness
d. Virtually everyone

ANSWER: D
Diff: 1 Page: 4
Topic: Chapter Introduction
Textbook LO: 1.1
Skill: Conceptual

10. Nearly one in ______ Americans is directly affected by a diagnosable mental illness at some point
in their lives.
a. two c. four
b. three d. five

ANSWER: A
Diff: 3 Page: 3
Topic: Chapter Introduction
Textbook LO: 1.1
Skill: Factual

11. About one in ______ adult Americans experiences a diagnosable mental illness in a given year. a. two c. four
b. three d. five

ANSWER: C
Diff: 3 Page: 3-4
Topic: Chapter Introduction
Textbook LO: 1.1
Skill: Factual

12. What is the view about the medical model stated by the authors of your text?
a. It is not currently a prominent model for understanding abnormal behavior.
b. It puts the study of abnormal behavior directly in the purview of the field of psychology.
c. It provides terms such as “symptom” and “disease” which will be emphasized in the text.
d. It is a major contemporary model, but psychological and sociocultural perspectives also warrant consideration.

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 4
Topic: Chapter Introduction
Textbook LO: 1.1
Skill: Conceptual

13. The ______ model considers abnormal behavior patterns to be symptoms of underlying illness.
a. biogenic c. sociocultural
b. behavioral d. medical

ANSWER: D
Diff: 1 Page: 4
Topic: Chapter Introduction
Textbook LO: 1.1
Skill: Conceptual

14. The authors of your text prefer to use the term “psychological disorder” rather than
“mental disorder” because___________.
a. the term “psychological disorder” puts the study of abnormal behavior squarely
within the purview of the field of psychology.
b. the term psychological disorder carries less of a stigma.
c. the term psychological disorder implies that behavioral change is possible whereas mental disorder suggests a less malleable condition.
d. the term “mental disorder” implies some type of serious illness, whereas the term
“psychological disorder” does not

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 4
Topic: Chapter Introduction
Textbook LO: 1.1
Skill: Conceptual

15. The Surgeon General’s report states that treatment for mental disorders
is most effective when
a. pharmacological treatment is monitored weekly by a health care professional.
b. psychological and pharmacological treatments are combined.
c. the social and financial needs of the individual are addressed prior to treatment.
d. clinicians serving an individual are from the same ethnic group.

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 5
Topic: Chapter Introduction
Textbook LO: 1.1
Skill: Factual

16. According to the 1999 Surgeon General’s Report on Mental Health, what percentage of American adults receives some form of help for mental health problems each year?
a. 5%
b. 15%
c. 25%
d. 35%

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 5
Topic: Chapter Introduction
Textbook LO: 1.1
Skill: Factual

17. The authors use the report of the ______ as a backdrop for this text’s study of abnormal
behavior.
a. World Health Organization c. Secretary of Health and Human Services
b. Surgeon General d. President’s Commission on Mental Health

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page: 5
Topic: Chapter Introduction
Textbook LO: 1.1
Skill: Factual

18. Which of the following behaviors is considered abnormal?
a. feeling anxious in anticipation of an important job interview
b. feeling sad after failing a test
c. feeling panic whenever entering a department store
d. feeling depressed about losing a loved one

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 5
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.2
Skill: Applied

19. Which of the following statements about the unusualness criteria for determining abnormality is correct?
a. It is the only criteria used to determine abnormality
b. It is the best criteria for determining abnormality
c. Statistical deviance or rarity is sufficient to judge abnormality
d. Just because a behavior is unusual does not necessarily mean that it is considered abnormal.

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 6
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.2
Skill: Conceptual

20. ______ societies have norms or standards that define the kinds of behavior acceptable in
given contexts.
a. Very few c. Around 2/3
b. Around 1/3 of d. All

ANSWER: D
Diff: 1 Page: 6
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.2
Skill: Factual

21. Which of the following is one of the criteria for determining abnormal behavior as presented in the text?
a. The behavior is time consuming.
b. The behavior is selfish.
c. The behavior results in loss of income.
d. The behavior is socially unacceptable.

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 5-7
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.2
Skill: Conceptual

22. In judging whether a person’s behavior is socially unacceptable or violates
social norms, clinicians must take into account ______.
a. ideas of persecution c. universal truths
b. cultural differences d. subjects’ expectations

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page: 6
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.2
Skill: Conceptual

23. Which statement is true about the view of homosexuality as abnormal?
a. Until the mid-1970s, homosexuality was classified as a mental disorder by the
psychiatric profession.
b. After World War I, homosexuality was not viewed as a mental disorder in the
United States but it was in Europe.
c. Homosexuality is classified as a mental disorder in the current psychiatric
classification system in the United States but not in Europe.
d. Homosexuality is currently classified as a disorder in men but not in women.

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 6
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.2
Skill: Factual

24. Archibald has recurring delusions that he is the King of England. He also hallucinates
that the Queen of England sits next to him and he talks to her throughout the day. Which criterion of
abnormal behavior most closely reflects his behavior?
a. significant personal distress c. socially unacceptable behavior
b. self-defeating behavior d. faulty perception of reality

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 6
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.2
Skill: Applied

25. Seeing things and hearing voices that are not present are considered ______.
a. delusions c. hallucinations
b. compulsions d. obsessions

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 6
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.2
Skill: Factual

26. Kathy has recurring visions of demons chasing her around her house. She also
hears them telling her, “We have come for you!” She is experiencing ______.
a. delusions c. hallucinations
b. compulsions d. obsessions

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 6
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.2
Skill: Applied

27. Unfounded ideas, or false beliefs which have no basis in fact, are considered ______.
a. delusions c. hallucinations
b. compulsions d. obsessions

ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page: 6
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.2
Skill: Factual

28. Alexander believes that aliens from outer space are working together with the CIA in an
elaborate plot to brainwash him with secret messages transmitted through static on his
television. His beliefs are most likely what psychologists would call ______.
a. delusions c. hallucinations
b. compulsions d. obsessions

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 6
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.2
Skill: Applied

29. Abigail is suffering from a combination of chronic anxiety and depression, and these conditions cause her to experience many troublesome emotions. Which criterion of abnormal behavior most closely matches her symptoms?
a. significant personal distress c. unusual behavior
b. self-defeating behavior d. faulty perception of reality

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 6
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.2
Skill: Applied

30. Which criterion of abnormal behavior most closely matches a college student who must
withdraw due to alcoholism?
a. faulty perception of reality
b. maladaptive or self-defeating behavior
c. unusual behavior
d. socially unacceptable behavior

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page: 7
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.3
Skill: Applied

31. Megan has an intense fear of being stuck in an elevator or a similar enclosed place.
Her fears are best described as ______.
a. claustrophobia c. agoraphobia
b. delusions d. ideas of persecution

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 7
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.3
Skill: Applied

32. People are said to have ______diagnoses when they have more than one disorder.
a. coexisting c. comorbid
b. comingled d. simultaneous

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 7
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.3
Skill: Factual

33. Among Native Americans, hearing the voices of recently deceased loved
ones is considered ______.
a. normal
b. abnormal
c. unusual but not abnormal
d. a hallucination due to extreme grief

ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page: 8
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.4
Skill: Factual

34. Native Americans often seek help for “White Man’s Illness” (e.g., alcoholism) through ______.
a. “White Man’s Medicine” c. shamans
b. native women healer’s d. medicine men

ANSWER: A
Diff: 3 Page: 8-9
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.4
Skill: Factual

35. In a number of African cultures, anxiety is expressed as ______.
a. fears of failure in procreation, in dreams, and complaints about witchcraft
b. trancelike states
c. physical symptoms such as headaches, fatigue, or weakness
d. feelings of guilt or sadness

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 9
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.4
Skill: Factual

36. In Eastern cultures, depression is experienced largely in terms of ______.
a. fears of failure in procreation, in dreams, and complaints about witchcraft
b. trancelike states
c. physical or somatic symptoms such as headaches, fatigue, or weakness
d. feelings of guilt or sadness

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 9
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.4
Skill: Factual

37. Compared to the United States, the rates of schizophrenia in countries such as Colombia India, Denmark, Nigeria, and the former Soviet Union are_______.
a. lower
b. about the same
c. higher
d. lower for women and higher for men
ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 9
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.4
Skill: Factual

38. In our culture, models based on ______ have achieved prominence in explaining
abnormal behavior.
a. spiritual corruption c. medical disease
b. demonology d. anthropomorphism

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 9
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.4
Skill: Conceptual

39. Traditional native cultures attribute most mental illnesses to ______.
a. supernatural causes c. immorality
b. poor child-rearing practices d. psychic abilities

ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page: 9
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.4
Skill: Conceptual

40. In ______folk society, psychological problems are often attributed to the influence of
“spirits” or the possession of a “weak soul.”
a. Malaysian c. Nigerian
b. Kurdish d. Filipino

ANSWER: D
Diff: 3 Page: 9
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.4
Skill: Conceptual

41. Throughout much of history in Western societies, abnormal behavior was often taken as a
sign of ______.
a. psychic powers c. spiritual enlightenment
b. biological imbalances d. demonic possession

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 9
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

42. The process of cutting a hole in the skull to provide a pathway for demons to leave a
possessed person’s body is called _______.
a. exorcism c. spiritual incision
b. trephination d. expurgating

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 9
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

43. Archaeologists have unearthed human skeletons with holes in the skull. It has been suggested that the holes were drilled into the skulls to _________.
a. release fluid associated with brain swelling
b. relieve the individual of a headache
c. release “evil spirits” from the individual
d. treat epilepsy

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 9
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

44. Before Hippocrates, the ancient Greeks believed that abnormal behavior, or madness,
resulted from ______.
a. natural forces c. punishment by the gods
b. demonic possession d. psychic powers

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

45. In ancient Greece, people who behaved abnormally were often sent to temples dedicated to
______.
a. Aphrodite c. Zeus
b. Aesculapius d. Apollo

ANSWER: B
Diff: 3 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

46. The ancient Greeks attempted to cure mental illness by ______.
a. sending people to temples where they were given rest, a nutritious diet, and exercise
b. trephining
c. performing exorcisms
d. torturing them in order to force the evil spirits out of their bodies

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

47. The celebrated ancient Greek physician who argued that illnesses of the body and mind
resulted from natural causes rather than the wrath of the gods was ______.
a. Socrates c. Demosthenes
b. Hippocrates d. Aristotle

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

48. The idea that the health of the body depends on a balance of four vital bodily fluids, or
humors, was first proposed by ______.
a Galen c. Socrates
b. Plato d. Hippocrates

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

49. According to Hippocrates, abnormal behavior results from ______.
a. biological imbalances c. demonic possession
b. angering the gods d. spiritual deprivation

ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

50. Andy is a quick-tempered individual. According to Hippocrates, Andy would be described as having an excess of_____.
a. phlegm c. green bile
b. blood d. yellow bile

ANSWER: D
Diff: 3 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Applied

51. Zorba is constantly depressed. According to Hippocrates’ theory, Zorba has an excess of
______.
a. phlegm c. green bile
b. blood d. black bile

ANSWER: D
Diff: 3 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Applied

52. Theo is lethargic and sluggish, always acting like he is in “slow motion.”
According to Hippocrates’s theory, Theo has an excess of ______.
a. phlegm c. yellow bile
b. blood d. black bile

ANSWER: A
Diff: 3 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Applied

53. George is cheerful, confident, and optimistic. According to Hippocrates’ theory, George
has an excess of ______.
a. phlegm c. yellow bile
b. blood d. black bile

ANSWER: B
Diff: 3 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Applied

54. A person who is cheerful, confident, and optimistic is said to be ______.
a. sanguine c. phlegmatic
b. choleric d. melancholic

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

55. Hippocrates would label a person who is lethargic and sluggish, with little or no energy, as ______.
a. sanguine c. phlegmatic
b. choleric d. melancholic

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

56. Hippocrates labeled individuals that were quick-tempered, or bilious, as ______.
a. sanguine c. phlegmatic
b. choleric d. melancholic

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

57. According to Hippocrates, a person who is chronically sad and depressed is said to be ______. a. sanguine c. phlegmatic
b. choleric d. melancholic

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

58. Hippocrates diagnoses one of his patients as suffering from an excess of blood. The patient is
probably ______.
a. lethargic and sluggish c. confident and optimistic
b. quick-tempered d. sad and depressed

ANSWER: C
Diff: 3 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Applied

59. Hippocrates diagnoses one of his patients as suffering from an excess of phlegm. The
patient is probably ______.
a. lethargic and sluggish c. confident and optimistic
b. quick-tempered d. sad and depressed

ANSWER: A
Diff: 3 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Applied

60. Hippocrates diagnoses one of his patients as suffering from an excess of yellow bile.
The patient is probably ______.
a. lethargic and sluggish c. confident and optimistic
b. quick-tempered d. sad and depressed

ANSWER: B
Diff: 3 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Applied

61. The ethical oath that medical students take when they become physicians honors ______.
a. Galen c. Aristotle
b. Thalen d. Hippocrates

ANSWER: D
Diff: 1 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

62. Hippocrates’ view that abnormal behavior could result from biological imbalances foreshadowed today’s ______ model.
a. medical c. psychoanalytic
b. eclectic d. phenomenological

ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Conceptual

63. Which of the following are the three categories of abnormal behavior identified by Hippocrates? a. melancholia, mania, and exhilaration
b. melancholia, phrenitis, and mania
c. mania, depression, and hypoactivity
d. phrenitis, agitation, catatonia

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

64. Hippocrates diagnoses one of his patients as suffering from mania. The patient is
probably ______.
a. excessively depressed c. schizophrenic
b. excessively excited d. autistic

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Applied

65. Hippocrates diagnoses one of his patients as suffering from melancholia. The patient is
probably ______.
a. excessively depressed c. schizophrenic
b. excessively excited d. autistic

ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Applied

66. Hippocrates diagnoses one of his patients as suffering from phrenitis. The patient is
probably ______.
a. excessively excited c. suffering from schizophrenia
b. excessively depressed d. autistic

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Applied

67. The Greek physician who expanded on the teachings of Hippocrates was ______.
a. Homer c. Leonidas
b. Themistocles d. Galen

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

68. The Greek physician who discovered that arteries carry blood, not air, as had been previously thought, was ______.
a. Hippocrates c. Socrates
b. Galen d. Themistocles

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

69. Until the physician Galen found that arteries carried blood, it was thought by most people
that they carried ______.
a. bile c. air
b. phlegm d. water

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

70. During the Middle Ages, the treatment of choice for curing abnormal behavior was ______.
a. trephining c. exorcism
b. bleeding d. meditation

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 11
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

71. In medieval times, the doctrine that abnormal behavior was a sign of possession by evil spirits
or the devil was espoused by the ______ church.
a. Episcopalian c. Roman Catholic
b. Muslim d. Anglican

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 10-11
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

72. Fear of witches reached its height during the ______.
a. Middle Ages c. Age of Enlightenment
b. Renaissance d. Victorian Age

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page: 11
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

73. Torture, starvation, and beatings were among the ______.
a. methods of persuasions used by exorcists
b. methods of treatment used in medieval psychotherapy for depression
c. threats made to hospitalized mental patients until electroshock therapy was developed
d. forms of punishment used in the Renaissance by parents of rebellious male teenagers

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 11
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

74. The “Malleus Maleficarum” was ______.
a. a medical manual designed to help Renaissance physicians treat abnormal behavior
b. the first diagnostic manual that correctly labeled some mental health problems
according to their behavioral symptoms
c. the holy ritual used to help priests perform exorcisms
d. a manual for helping inquisitors identify suspected witches

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 11
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

75. The “water-float” test was used during the 16th and 17th centuries to test for ______.
a. being a witch c. problem-solving skills
b. loyalty to the King or Queen d. melancholia

ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page: 11
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

76. If a suspected witch was subjected to the “water-float test” and was found to be spiritually pure,
the suspect _______.
a. was released
b. was allowed to join a convent
c. was given an exorcism to prevent future demonic possession
d. drowned

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 11
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

77. The behavior confessed by supposed “witches” was often akin to modern conceptualizations
of _________, although it was likely that such confessions resulted from the effects of torture.
a. major depression c. brain damage
b. antisocial personality disorder d. schizophrenia

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 11
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

78. Most scholars today believe that accusations of witchcraft during the Middle Ages
and Renaissance were _______.
a. based on valid fears of the unknown
b. based on misinterpretations of abnormal behaviors resulting from mental illness
c. convenient means of disposing of social nuisances and seizing property
d. part of a general trend by the poor to seek revenge against the wealthy by accusing
them of crimes which would cause them to be disgraced

ANSWER: C
Diff: 3 Page: 11
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Conceptual
79. In Medieval England, most explanations of mental illness involved _______.
a. sociological causes c. physical illness or brain trauma
b. demonic possession d. spiritual impropriety

ANSWER: C
Diff: 3 Page: 12
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

80. Renaissance physician Johann Weyer was noted for arguing that abnormal behavior
and thought patterns were caused by _______.
a. physical problems c. spiritual impurity
b. demonic possession d. sociological factors

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page:12
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

81. The first asylums, or “madhouses,” began to crop up throughout Europe in the ______
centuries.
a. 11th and 12th c. 15th and 16th
b. 13th and 14th d. 17th and 18th

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 12
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

82. The first asylums in Europe were ______.
a. added on to existing hospitals as special “wards” for the mentally ill
b. former leprosariums
c. former prisons
d. former military fortresses

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 12
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

83. Which of the following is true of the first asylums for the mentally ill?
a. Patients were used as “guinea pigs” for new and risky medical experiments.
b. Residents were offered meaningful work as therapy.
c. Asylum inmates frequently performed in plays for the public.
d. They often were homes for beggars as well as the mentally disturbed.

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 12
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

84. The word “bedlam” derived from_________________.
a. A slang term popular in the 15th and 16th century for chaos
b. Sir Francis Reginald Bedlam, founder of the first asylum in London
c. Bedlam, England, home of the first insane asylum
d. St. Mary’s of Bethlehem Hospital in London

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 12
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

85. The modern era of treatment can be traced, in large part, to the efforts of_______.
a. Pussin and Pinel c. Lavoix and Millet
b. Roentgen and Pasteur d. Mesmer and Charcot

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 12
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

86. The modern era of humane treatment can be traced to the ______.
a. late 16th and early 17th centuries
b. late 17th and early 18th centuries
c. late 18th and early 19th centuries
d. late 19th and early 20th centuries

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 12
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

87. In the late 18th and early 19th century, most Europeans viewed deranged or mentally
ill people as ______.
a. sick people in need of treatment
b. demonically possessed
c. having special “gifts” that allowed them to communicate with the spirit world
d. threats to society

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 12
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

88. Jean-Baptiste Pussin, a layman in charge of a ward for the “incurably insane” at the La Bicetre mental hospital in Paris is known for ______.
a. moving patients to rooms with more sunlight
b. providing medicine to hospitalized patients
c. releasing insane inmates from their chains and shackles
d. ending exorcisms in the asylums

ANSWER: C
Diff: 3 Page: 12
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

89. The first official to unchain a group of “incurably insane” patients was ______.
a. Jean-Baptiste Pussin c. Philippe Pinel
b. Dorothea Dix d. Horace Loveland

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 12
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

90. If you were a follower of Philippe Pinel, you would most likely agree with which of the
following statements?
a. The mentally ill should be incarcerated and chained to prevent them from harming
themselves or others.
b. The mentally ill should be treated through purging, bloodletting, and ice-cold baths.
c. The mentally ill will recover more quickly by living in the real world and learning to
survive on their own.
d. The mentally ill should be treated with in a humane manner, with understanding, and concern.

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 12
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Applied

91. The philosophy of treatment that emerged from the efforts of Frenchmen like Philippe
Pinel is called ______ therapy.
a. hedonistic c. rational
b. moral d. organic

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 12
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

92. A noted therapist argues that mentally ill patients should be treated in a decent and relaxed environment. Her argument most closely matches the tenets of ______ therapy.
a. primal c. moral
b. Catholic d. rational

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 12
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Applied

93. Pinel’s counterpart in England was ______.
a. Horace Loveland c. Charles Dewey
b. William Tuke d. Lord Cromwell

ANSWER: B
Diff: 3 Page: 12
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

94. The man considered to be the “father” of American psychiatry is ______.
a. William Tuke c. Benjamin Rush
b. Alfred Adler d. William James

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 12-13
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

95. If you were a follower of Benjamin Rush, you would most likely agree with which of the
following statements?
a. The mentally ill should be incarcerated and chained to prevent them from harming
themselves or others.
b. The mentally ill should be treated through purging, bloodletting, and ice-cold baths.
c. The mentally ill will recover more quickly by living in the real world and learning to
survive on their own.
d. The mentally ill should be given custodial care only, as their illnesses are incurable.

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 13
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Applied

96. Benjamin Rush believed that madness was caused by ______.
a. poverty and social pressure
b. engorgement of the blood vessels in the brain
c. imbalances of bodily humors
d. genetically inherited vulnerabilities

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 13
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

97. The Boston schoolteacher most responsible for the establishment of mental hospitals
in the 19th century United States is ______.
a. Mary Dexter c. Laura Constance Wilson
b. Dorothea Dix d. Martha Custis

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page: 13
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

98. In the late 19th century, the attitude toward the mentally ill in the United States was
dominated by ______.
a. the belief in “moral therapy”
b. apathy and neglect
c. the belief in bloodletting and purging as a primary treatment
d. fascination with Freud’s new “talking cure”

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page: 13
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

99. Through the middle of the 20th century, deplorable conditions at mental hospitals were
______.
a. unheard of c. occasionally found
b. very rare d. commonplace

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 13
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

100. By the mid-1950s, the population in American mental hospitals had risen to about ______.
a. 250,000 c. 750,000
b. 500,000 d. 1,000,000

ANSWER: B
Diff: 3 Page: 13
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

101. In what year did Congress establish a nationwide system of community mental health centers that was intended to offer an alternative to long-term custodial care in bleak institutions?
a. 1943 c. 1963
b. 1953 d. 1973

ANSWER: C
Diff: 3 Page: 14
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

102. In 1963, community mental health centers (CHMCs) were established nationwide under a
Congressional policy known as ______.
a. reformation c. deinstitutionalization
b. outsourcing d. compartmentalization

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 14
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

103. The class of drugs most responsible for the mass release of many institutionalized
mentally ill patients is the ______.
a. phenothiazines c. tricyclics
b. MAO inhibitors d. antibiotics

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 13
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

104. Phenothiazines are a group of ______ drugs.
a. antianxiety c. antidepressant
b. antipsychotic d. analgesic

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page: 13
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

105. Phenothiazines are used to treat the most flagrant behavior patterns associated with ______.
a. schizophrenia c. dissociative fugue
b. obsessive-compulsive disorder d. bipolar disorder

ANSWER: A
Diff: 3 Page: 13
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

106. The advent of phenothiazines was seen as instrumental in ____________.
a. lowering the costs of care in state hospitals so that more could be constructed
b. increasing populations of substance abusers and the mentally retarded while reducing
the number of schizophrenics
c. developing new diagnostic screening measures for schizophrenia
d. reducing the population of mental hospitals

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 13
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

107. Between the 1950s and 1990s, the mental hospital population
across the United States has ______.
a. increased dramatically
b. remained relatively the same
c. increased the number of female patients while decreasing the number of male patients
d. decreased dramatically

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 13
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

108. Which of the following has been a negative effect of the deinstitutionalization movement?
a. a significant increase in violent crime by those who were released
b. a nearly total collapse of the nationwide system of mental hospitals and community
mental health centers
c. an increase in the number of mentally ill patients requiring long-term care
d. the abandonment of many former patients who, now homeless, wander the streets of American cities

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 14-15
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

109. Beliefs in possession or demonology persisted until the rise of the natural sciences in the
______.
a. 15th century c. 18th century
b. 16th century d. 19th century

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 15
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

110. In the 18th century, society began to turn toward ______ to explain natural phenomena and
human behavior.
a. demonology c. inner enlightenment
b. reason and science d. spiritualism

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 15
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

111. A German physician who argued that abnormal behavior was rooted in diseases of the
brain was ______.
a. William Griesinger c. G. A. Hansen
b. Emil Von Tuke d. Gregor Mendel

ANSWER: A
Diff: 3 Page: 16
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

112. The physician who wrote an influential textbook on psychiatry in 1883, in which he
likened mental disorders to physical diseases, was ______.
a. Joseph Lister c. Emil Kraepelin
b. Robert Koch d. G. A. Hansen

ANSWER: C
Diff: 3 Page: 16
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

113. The ______ model attempts to explain abnormal behavior on the basis of underlying
biological defects.
a. medical c. structural-functional
b. eclectic d. center-periphery

ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page: 16
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Conceptual

114. According to the medical model, people behaving abnormally _______.
a. suffer from incurable diseases caused by inherited genetic defects
b. suffer from the results of early childhood trauma and can be cured with proper
behavioral therapies
c. suffer from mental illnesses that can be classified like physical illnesses, according
to their distinctive causes and symptoms
d. are often unjustly labeled “abnormal” by society because of fears about their
“different” behaviors

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 16
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Conceptual

115. Emil Kraepelin specified ______ main groups of mental disorders.
a. two c. six
b. four d. eight

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 16
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

116. Emil Kraepelin identified the group of diseases he called “dementia praecox,” which we now
call ______.
a. conversion disorder c. schizophrenia
b. dissociative identity disorder d. bipolar disorder

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 16
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

117. Emil Kraepelin identified the group of diseases he called “manic-depressive psychosis,”
which we now call ______.
a. conversion disorder c. schizophrenia
b. dissociative identity disorder d. bipolar disorder

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 16
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

118. Kraepelin believed that “manic-depressive psychosis” was caused by ______.
a. an excess of green bile c. obesity
b. an abnormality in body metabolism d. a biochemical imbalance

ANSWER: B
Diff: 3 Page: 16
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

119. The major contribution of Emil Kraepelin was ______.
a. the development of a classification system in which the current diagnostic systems are
rooted
b. the discovery that early childhood environment plays a crucial role in the development of
a healthy personality
c. the discovery of the bacterium causing syphilis
d. the development of “moral therapy,” in which humane treatment and a relaxed
environment were used to help restore mental health

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 16
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

120. General paresis is a result of the advanced stages of ___________________.
a. bipolar disorder
b. schizophrenia
c. dementia
d. syphilis

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 16
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

121. The discovery of a cure for syphilis led to ______.
a. today’s general acceptance that there is a biological basis for all psychological disorders
b. the cure for polio
c. optimism that biological causes for other types of disturbed behavior would be discovered
d. the eventual development of the fields of neurology and neuropsychology

ANSWER: C
Diff: 3 Page: 16
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Conceptual

122. We realize today that ______ of all psychological disorders involve a complex web of factors
which we are still struggling to understand.
a. only one or two c. approximately half
b. a few d. the great majority

ANSWER: D
Diff: 1 Page: 16
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

123. Which of the following is representative of the medical model terminology?
a. fixed interval c. syndrome
b. reinforcement d. time out

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page: 16
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

124. A condition involving paralysis and numbness with no known medical cause was ______ .
a. dissociation c. hypochondriasis
b. fugue d. hysteria

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 16-17
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Conceptual

125. ______demonstrated that hysterical behaviors, like paralysis or numbness,
could be induced in normal subjects under hypnosis through the use of suggestions.
a. Mesmer c. Charcot
b. Breuer d. Pinel

ANSWER: C
Diff: 3 Page: 16-17
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual
126. The person who developed the first psychological theory of abnormal behavior was
______.
a. Friedrich Mesmer c. Sigmund Freud
b. Joseph Breuer d. Jean-Martin Charcot

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 17
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

127. The physician with whom Freud worked most closely in the case of Anna O. was ______.
a. Charcot c. Jung
b. Mesmer d. Breuer

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 17
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

128. The process of bringing emotions to the surface and “discharging”
them in therapy is called ______.
a. transference c. free association
b. catharsis d. displacement

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 17
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

129. The 21-year-old woman treated by Breuer in a classic case of hysteria was ______.
a. Sonja J. c. Anna O.
b. Alica K. d. Marta M.

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 17
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

130. Mary goes to a therapist for treatment of numbness in her arms that appears to have no
physical cause. Her therapist tells her that her symptoms result from repressed emotions
dating back to subconscious conflicts during her early childhood. The therapist uses
hypnosis and has her talk about her feelings to help her “discharge” her pent-up
emotions. Her therapist’s treatment approach is most similar to that of ______.
a. Freud c. Kraepelin
b. Pinel d. Griesinger

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 17
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Applied

131. Until _____, the American Psychiatric Association classified homosexuality as a mental health disorder.
a. 1963 c. 1983
b. 1973 d. 1993

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 18
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

132. Which of the following was classified as a mental health disorder by the American Psychiatric Association until 1973?
a. Pedophilia c. Homosexuality
b. Transvestitism d. Fetishism

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 18
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

133. Research has found that _______________ have a greater frequency of suicide and of states of emotional distress, especially anxiety and depression, compared to heterosexual men and women.
a. bisexual men c. lesbian women
b. homosexual men d. homosexual men and lesbian women

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 18
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

134. Which of the follow symptoms have been noted to occur at a higher level with gay men as compared to
heterosexual men?
a. psychopathy c. bipolar disorder
b. intellectual deficiency d. depression

ANSWER: C
Diff: 3 Page: 18
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

135. As compared to married heterosexual couples, gays in close, committed relationships have been found
to ______.
a. exhibit more verbal conflict but less physical aggression
b. exhibit more physical aggression but less verbal conflict
c. be comparably well-adjusted
d. be more generally dysfunctional in couple adjustment

ANSWER: C
Diff: 3 Page: 18
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

136. Which of the following statements is true?
a. Gay men and lesbian women are less prone than heterosexuals to develop psychological
problems.
b. The majority of psychological problems experienced by gay men and lesbian women are
directly the result of their sexual orientation.
c. Statistically, gay adolescents have a lower suicide rate than heterosexual adolescents.
d. The social stress associated with the stigma, prejudice, and discrimination that gay
people encounter may directly cause mental health problems.

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 18
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

137. The ______ perspective emphasizes factors such as unemployment, poverty, and family breakdown as causes of abnormal behavior.
a. cognitive c. social learning
b. structural-functional d. sociocultural

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 19
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Conceptual

138. The ______ model emphasizes a broad perspective that takes into account the social
contexts in which abnormal behavior occurs.
a. sociocultural c. social learning
b. Gestalt d. environmental

ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page: 19
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Conceptual

139. Gloria, a student from a poor family, goes to a therapist for treatment of her test anxiety.
Her therapist tells her that the anxiety is not abnormal behavior on her part, but rather
it is a normal reaction to the abnormal expectations placed on her by an unfair society
that has failed to give her an equal chance to fairly compete with other students. Her therapist is using the ______ treatment model.
a. social learning c. eclectic
b. humanistic d. sociocultural

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 19
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Applied

140. The biopsychosocial perspective of abnormal behavior is also known as the ______ model.
a. interactionist c. eclectic
b. catharsis d. psychodynamic

ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page: 19
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

141. A systematic method of conducting scientific research in which theories or assumptions are
examined in the light of evidence is ______.
a. the intuitive method c. the scientific method
b. the philosophical approach d. the Socratic method

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 21
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.7
Skill: Factual

142. Research in the field of abnormal psychology is based on the application of ______.
a. the intuitive method c. the scientific method
b. the philosophical approach d. the Socratic method

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 20
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.7
Skill: Factual
143. Which of the following is one of the primary objectives of science?
a. revelation c. remediation
b. description d. expediation

ANSWER:B
Diff: 1 Page: 20
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.7
Skill: Factual

144. In the story of the professor who placed a rat on top of her desk and then asked graduate
students to describe the rat’s behavior, the rat was _______.
a. released into the outside world
b. genetically engineered to be more intelligent than a normal rat
c. a clone
d. blind

ANSWER: D
Diff: 1 Page: 20
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.7
Skill: Factual

145. A formulation of the relationships underlying observed events is called a ______.
a. theory c. supposition
b. hypothesis d. proposition

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 20-21
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.7
Skill: Factual

146. Using scientific knowledge to help people shape their own goals and efficiently use
their resources to accomplish them achieves which primary objective of science?
a. description c. remediation
b. explanation d. control

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 21
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.7
Skill: Factual

147. Psychologists use _______ to advance the description, explanation, prediction, and
control of abnormal behavior.
a. common sense c. the scientific method
b. the clinical method d. the medical model

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 21
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.7
Skill: Conceptual

148. Which of the following is one of the steps in the scientific method?
a. Making inferences from the research question
b. Framing the research question in the form of a personal statement
c. Testing new ideas
d. Drawing conclusions about the hypothesis

ANSWER: D
Diff: 1 Page: 21-22
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.7
Skill: Factual

149. A prediction about behavior that is tested through experimentation is called a ______.
a. theory c. supposition
b. hypothesis d. proposition

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page: 21
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.7
Skill: Factual

150. According to the text, testing the hypothesis is the ______ step in the scientific method.
a. first c. third
b. second d. fourth

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 21
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.7
Skill: Factual

151. Emily is studying hyperactive children. Her observations have led her to predict that if
she runs an experiment in which some hyperactive children are given a sugar-sweetened
drink while others are given a drink sweetened with a sugar substitute, those receiving
the sugar-sweetened drink will exhibit greater disruptions in their behavior. Her
prediction is an example of a _______.
a. theory c. response set
b. hypothesis d. scientifically based conjecture

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 21
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.7
Skill: Applied

152. According to the text, drawing conclusions about the hypothesis is the ______ step in
the scientific method.
a. first c. third
b. second d. fourth

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 21
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.7
Skill: Factual

153. Scientists are reasonably confident that group differences are significant when the
probability that chance alone can explain the difference is less than ______ percent.
a. 2 c. 7
b. 5 d. 10

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page: 21-22
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.7
Skill: Factual

154. ______ are designed to promote the dignity of the individual, protect human welfare,
and preserve scientific integrity.
a. Research methodologies c. Ethical principles
b. Sampling techniques d. Research grants

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 22
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.8
Skill: Conceptual

155. To review psychological research proposals to ensure their adherence to ethical guidelines, each university
and hospital must have a(an) ______.
a. ethical oversight committee c. research equity committee
b. institutional review board d. scientific ethics panel

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 22
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.8
Skill: Factual

156. The principle of ______ requires that people be free to choose whether they wish to
participate in research studies and must be given sufficient information in advance about
the study’s purposes, methods, risks, and benefits to allow them to make a
knowledgeable decision about their participation.
a. informed consent c. debriefing
b. confidentiality d. free will

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 22
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.8
Skill: Factual

157. In studies in which information was withheld or deception was used, subjects must later
receive an explanation of the true methods and purposes of the study and why it was
necessary to keep them in the dark. This process is known as ______.
a. informed consent c. debriefing
b. confidentiality d. free will

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 22
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.8
Skill: Factual

158. _______________ is the principle that research subjects have the right to expect that their identities
will not be disclosed and that records of the research will be kept similarly secure. a. Selective secrecy c. Debriefing
b. Confidentiality d. Preemptive exclusion

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page: 22
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.8
Skill: Factual

159. The research method in which subjects are observed unobtrusively, so that their
behavior is not affected by the known presence of an observer, is the ______ method.
a. case-study c. correlational
b. experimental d. naturalistic observation

ANSWER: D
Diff: 1 Page: 22
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

160. The research method in which behavior is observed in the field, where it happens, is the
______ method.
a. case-study c. naturalistic observation
b. experimental d. psychometric

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 22
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

161. Naturalistic observation reveals _______.
a. neither how nor why subjects behave
b. how subjects behave but not why
c. why subjects behave but not how
d. both how and why subjects behave

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 22-23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Conceptual

162. Ellen decides to study overweight people. She designs her study so that she will observe
overweight and normal people eating in restaurants to see if there are differences in what
they order, how quickly they eat, and how much they eat. The diners will not know they
are being observed. Ellen’s research design employs the ______ method.
a. survey c. naturalistic observation
b. experimental d. case-study

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 22-23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

163. Naturalistic observation reveals _______.
a. how subjects process their world
b. where subjects engage in observed behaviors
c. why subjects think as they do
d. why subjects engage in observed behaviors

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 22-23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Conceptual

164. A scientific method of study that examines the relationships between factors or variables
expressed in statistical terms is the _______ method.
a. survey c. correlational
b. experimental d. case study

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

165. A statistical measure of the association between two variables is a(n) ______.
a. variable matrix c. correlation coefficient
b. independent variable d. reciprocal function

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

166. The range of numbers that may be used to express a correlation coefficient is between
a. 0 and +1.00 c. -1.00 and 0
b. -1.00 and +1.00 d. -0.10 and +0.10

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

167. In a correlational study, when one variable increases as a second variable increases,
there is a _______ correlation between them.
a. random c. complementary
b. positive d. negative

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

168. In a correlational study, when one variable increases as a second variable decreases,
there is a _______ correlation between them.
a. random c. complementary
b. positive d. negative

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

169. Jan decides to study overweight people. She designs a correlational study comparing
weight level and heart disease. She finds that as weight level increases, so does heart
disease. Jan’s study has found a ______ correlation.
a. random c. complementary
b. positive d. negative

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

170. Jill decides to study overweight people. She designs a correlational study comparing
weight level and level of physical activity. She finds that as the level of physical activity
decreases, weight level increases. Jill’s study has found a _______ correlation.
a. random c. complementary
b. positive d. negative

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

171. Marge decides to study overweight people. She designs a study which will statistically
compare weight level and level of physical activity to see if there is a significant
statistical relationship between them. Marge’s study is typical of the _______ method of
research.
a. survey c. correlational
b. psychometric d. experimental

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

172. Researchers have found that among schoolchildren, as the amount of time they spend
reading increases, so do their grades. This is an example of a(n) ______.
a. positive correlation c. additive correlation
b. negative correlation d. statistical anomaly

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

173. Researchers have found that among schoolchildren, as the amount of time they spend
watching television increases, their grades decrease. This is an example of a(n) ______.
a. positive correlation c. additive correlation
b. negative correlation d. statistical anomaly

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

174. Which is the strongest correlation?
a. – 0.33 c. + 0.45
b. + 1.21 d. – 0.68

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Conceptual

175. Correlational studies can prove _______.
a. neither if a relationship exists nor if it is causal
b. if a relationship exists, but not if it is causal
c. if a relationship exists, and if it is causal in some situations
d. if a relationship exists, and if it is causal in every situation

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page: 23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

176. Which of the following is true of correlational studies?
a. They examine causal relationships between variables.
b. They can reveal significant relationships that are hypothesized between variables.
c. They are useful in achieving the scientific goal of explanation. .
d. They can prove cause-and-effect relationships between variables.

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

177. Researchers using correlational methods have found consistently significant positive
correlations between depression and negative thinking. What conclusions can you draw
from these studies?
a. Depression causes negative thinking.
b. Negative thinking causes depression.
c. Both negative thinking and depression are caused by some unknown outside variable.
d. Depression and negative thinking are likely to occur together.

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

178. A longitudinal study is a type of _______ study.
a. individual case c. experimental
b. correlational d. cross-sectional

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

179. A well-known Danish longitudinal study has tracked a group of children since 1962 to
determine their risk of developing ______.
a. diabetes c. schizophrenia
b. depression d. heart disease

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

180. In a longitudinal study, subjects could be studied for as long as ______.
a. six months c. two years
b. one year d. decades

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

181. A type of research in which people are periodically tested or evaluated over long periods
of time is ______ study.
a. an experimental c. a cross sectional
b. an individual case d. a longitudinal

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

182. Longitudinal studies are ______.
a. inexpensive and quick c. costly but quick
b. inexpensive but time consuming d. costly and time consuming

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

183. Broadly speaking, a(n) ______ is a trial or test of a hypothesis.
a. correlation c. experiment
b. case study d. survey

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 24
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

184. The research technique in which scientists seek to uncover cause-and-effect
relationships by directly manipulating independent variables and observing the effects on dependent variables is the ______ method.
a. correlational c. psychometric
b. experimental d. case-study

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page: 24
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

185. In an experiment, the suspected causal variables that are manipulated by the
experimenter are known as ______ variables.
a. independent c. dependent
b. codependent d. reciprocal

ANSWER: A
Diff: 3 Page: 24
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

186. In an experiment, the observed effects on subjects’ behavior resulting from
experimenters manipulating suspected causal variables are called ______ variables.
a. independent c. dependent
b. codependent d. reciprocal

ANSWER: C
Diff: 3 Page: 24
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

187. Jen decides to study the effects of alcohol on driving ability. She selects 200 college
students and randomly divides them into two groups of 100 students each. Subjects in
group “A” drive a car through an obstacle course while remaining sober. Subjects in
group “B” also drive through the obstacle course, but they are given an ounce of
whiskey before each attempt at driving the course. As expected, the driving ability of
subjects in group “B” steadily deteriorates as they consume more alcohol. In Jen’s
study, the amount of alcohol consumed is the ______.
a. independent variable c. dependent variable
b. codependent variable d. reciprocal variable

ANSWER: A
Diff: 3 Page: 24
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

188. Helen decides to study the effects of alcohol on driving ability. She selects 200 college
students and randomly divides them into two groups of 100 students each. Subjects in
group “A” drive a car through an obstacle course while remaining sober. Subjects in
group “B” also drive through the obstacle course, but they are given an ounce of
whiskey before each attempt at driving the course. As expected, the driving ability of
subjects in group “B” steadily deteriorates as they consume more alcohol. In Helen’s
study, the subjects’ driving ability is the ______.
a. independent variable c. dependent variable
b. codependent variable d. reciprocal variable

ANSWER: C
Diff: 3 Page: 24
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

189. In a study on alcohol and driving ability, half the subjects are given alcohol before
driving an obstacle course, while the remaining subjects drive the course while remaining
sober. In this study, those subjects who are given the alcohol before driving the course
comprise the ______ group.
a. control c. observation
b. placebo d. experimental

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 24
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

190. In a study on alcohol and driving ability, half the subjects are given alcohol before
driving an obstacle course, while the remaining subjects drive the course while remaining
sober. In this study, those subjects who drive the course while remaining sober comprise
the _______ group.
a. control c. observation
b. placebo d. experimental

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 24
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

191. Which of the following is an example of an independent variable?
a. behavioral variables c. physiological variables
b. treatment factors d. self-report variables

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 24 (Table 1.1)
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Conceptual

192. Which of the following is an example of a dependent variable?
a. a behavioral variable
b. experimental manipulations
c. types of treatment
d. treatment factors

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 24 (Table 1.1)
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Conceptual

193. Randy is running a study on alcohol and aggressive behavior. He randomly divides his
subjects into two groups because he knows that if he allows his subjects to choose their
own groups, aggressive subjects will tend to choose the group receiving alcohol while
non-aggressive subjects will tend to choose the group receiving no alcohol. He then
would not be able to distinguish the effects of the alcohol from the effects of subjects’
innate aggressiveness. This tendency of his aggressive subjects to choose the alcohol
group is called a(n) _______.
a. placebo effect c. experimental blind
b. response set d. selection factor

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 24-25
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

194. The way in which scientists attempt to control for selection factors in experimental
research is through the use of ______.
a. experimental blinds c. random assignment
b. placebos d. selective selection

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 25
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Conceptual

195. One way scientists control for subjects’ expectations in experimental research is by
keeping subjects in a state of being unaware of whether or not they have received an experimental treatment. This is also known as keeping the subjects ______.
a. blind c. unaware
b. disoriented d. confused

ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page: 25
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

196. Masking the taste of an alcoholic beverage with a mixer in an experiment may
keep subjects ______ as to whether or not they received the experimental treatment.
a. drunk longer c. blind
b. less drunk d. high

ANSWER: C
Diff: 3 Page: 25
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

197. A state of being unaware of whether one has received an experimental treatment while
participating in an experimental study is known as being ______.
a. mystified c. distracted
b. blind d. debriefed

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page: 25
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

198. One way scientists control for subjects’ expectations in experimental research
involving medication is by using ______.
a. selection factors c. dependent variables
b. independent variables d. placebos

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 25
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

199. A substance that has no psychological or physical effect of its own, but appears to have
an effect because of the beliefs of the people using it is called a(n) ______.
a. initiative substance c. placebo
b. confounding factor d. neuter

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 25
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

200. A bogus treatment designed to look real and used in research to control for subjects’
expectations is ______.
a. an experimental blind c. an extraneous variable
b. a placebo d. a situational factor

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page: 25
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

201. In a study on alcohol and aggressive behavior, subjects are randomly assigned to one of
two groups. One group receives real alcohol while the other group receives tonic water
which tastes identical to real alcohol. In this way, neither group of subjects knows who
got the real alcohol. In this study, the nonalcoholic tonic water serves as a(n) ______.
a. selection factor c. independent variable
b. dependent variable d. placebo

ANSWER: D
Diff: 1 Page: 25
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

202. In a study on alcohol and aggressive behavior, subjects are randomly assigned to one of
two groups. One group receives real alcohol while the other group receives tonic water
which tastes identical to real alcohol. Although the researchers know which group got
the real alcohol, none of the subjects know. This study is designed as a ______ placebo-control study.
a. single-blind c. longitudinal
b. double-blind d. correlational

ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page: 25
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

203. In a study on alcohol and aggressive behavior, subjects are randomly assigned to one of
two groups. One group receives real alcohol while the other group receives tonic water
which tastes identical to real alcohol. Neither the subjects nor the researchers know
which group got the real alcohol until after the study is completed. This study is
designed as a ______ placebo-control study.
a. single-blind c. longitudinal
b. double-blind d. correlational

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page: 25
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

204. Single-blind experiments control for ______.
a. neither subjects’ nor experimenters’ expectations
b. subjects’ but not experimenters’ expectations
c. experimenters’ but not subjects’ expectations
d. both subjects’ and experimenters’ expectations

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 25
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

205. Double-blind studies control for _______.
a. neither subjects’ nor experimenters’ expectations
b. subjects’ but not experimenters’ expectations
c. experimenters’ but not subjects’ expectations
d. both subjects’ and experimenters’ expectations

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 25
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

206. Evidence suggests that the effects of placebos are ______.
a. extremely strong c. generally strong
b. generally weak d. nonexistent

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 25
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

207. Evidence of placebo effects is strongest in studies of ______.
a. pain c. diabetes
b. depression d. arthritis

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 25
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

208. In a study on psychotherapy techniques, subjects are randomly assigned to one of two
groups. One group receives a specific type of therapy. The other group receives a
credible treatment which has elements common to all therapies but no specific ingredients
of the therapy received by the first group. This generic placebo therapy received by the
second group is called a(n) _______ placebo.
a. response c. blind
b. inert d. attention

ANSWER: D
Diff: 3 Page: 25-26
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

209. Which of the following is a type of experimental validity?
a. analogue validity c. control validity
b. specific validity d. external validity

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 26
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

210. In tests and measurements, ____________ is the term for the degree to which a test measures
what it is intended to measure.
a. validity c. reliability
b. accuracy d. congruence

ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page: 26
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

211. Experiments are said to have ______ validity when observed changes in the dependent
variable(s) can be causally related to the independent or treatment variable.
a. analogue c. internal
b. construct d. external

ANSWER: C
Diff: 3 Page: 26
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

212. Experiments lack internal validity when they fail to control for other factors, called
______ that might pose rival hypotheses for the results.
a. confounds c. blinds
b. placebos d. alternatives

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 26
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

213. A researcher administers an antidepressant drug to a group of depressed patients and
over a period of time they improve. The researcher claims that their improvement is due to
the drug, even though she did not control for outside factors such as improved emotional
support from friends, or natural improvement over time. This study lacks ______.
a. analogue validity c. internal validity
b. construct validity d. external validity

ANSWER: C
Diff: 3 Page: 26
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

214. An experiment’s generalizability or applicability beyond the original sample to other
subjects, settings, and times is called _______ validity.
a. analogue c. internal
b. construct d. external

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 26
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

215. In an experiment on treatments for depression, a researcher uses a sample consisting of
depressed subjects who are NOT typical of the general population of depressed subjects.
Although the treatment works on the sample subjects, it is unlikely to work on depressed
people in general. Which type of validity does this study lack?
a. analogue validity c. internal validity
b. external validity d. construct validity

ANSWER: B
Diff: 3 Page: 26
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

216. The process of repeating an experiment in other settings or at other times is called ______.
a. reiteration c. replication
b. correlation d. a control study

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 26
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

217. The degree to which treatment effects in an experiment can be accounted for by the
theoretical mechanisms represented in the independent variables is called _______.
a. face validity c. internal validity
b. construct validity d. external validity

ANSWER: B
Diff: 3 Page: 26
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

218. A researcher tests a new antidepressant drug. The drug works, but not for the theoretical
reasons proposed in the researcher’s hypothesis. The experiment lacks ______ validity.
a. face c. internal
b. construct d. external

ANSWER: B
Diff: 3 Page: 26-27
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

219. Studies which examine the rates of occurrence of abnormal behavior in various settings
and population groups are known as ______ studies.
a. epidemiological c. case
b. quasi-experimental d. psychometric

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 27
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

220. A researcher using the epidemiological model would be most likely to use which of the
following research techniques?
a. a survey c. a case study
b. the intuitive approach d. an experiment

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 27
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Conceptual

221. In epidemiological studies, the survey method investigates __________.
a. causal factors c. case studies
b. double blind effects d. rates of occurrence

ANSWER: D
Diff: 1 Page: 27
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

222. A researcher uses a series of interviews and questionnaires to examine rates of
alcoholism among Blacks, Whites, Hispanics, and Native Americans. She finds that some
ethnic groups, such as Native Americans, have much higher rates of alcoholism than
others. Her study is typical of a(n) _______ study.
a. psychometric c. quasi-experimental
b. naturalistic observation d. epidemiological

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 27
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

223. In the epidemiological model, the overall number of cases of a given disorder existing
in a given population at a given time are known as ______.
a. frequency c. incidence
b. prevalence d. populations

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 27
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

224. In the epidemiological model, the number of new cases of a disorder occurring during a
specific period of time are known as ______.
a. frequency c. incidence
b. prevalence d. populations

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 27
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

225. Identify the most important limitation of the survey method of epidemiological research.
a. An entire population cannot be studied.
b. They can only make suggestions about causal influences.
c. Samples can never be entirely randomized.
d. Behavior of groups can quickly change.

ANSWER: B
Diff: 3 Page: 27
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Conceptual

226. Epidemiological studies ______.
a. neither point to potential causal factors nor control for selection factors
b. point to potential causal factors but do not control for selection factors
c. control for selection factors but do not point to potential causal factors
d. control for selection factors and point to potential causal factors

ANSWER: B
Diff: 3 Page: 27
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

227. In research, the target group you want to find out about, such as the “average American
teenager,” comprises the research ______.
a. sample c. cluster
b. population d. set

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 27
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Conceptual

228. In research, the subjects or individuals who are observed or who participate in the
research are said to comprise a research ______.
a. sample c. cluster
b. population d. set

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 27
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Conceptual

229. In a research study of college substance abuse, the target group of college students
represents the research ______.
a. cluster c. population
b. set d. sample

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 27
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

230. Jack conducts a study on drinking habits among college students. Since there are too
many college students for him to directly observe all of them, he randomly selects a
group of 250 college students to represent all college students. Jack’s study finds
that 90 percent of college students drink regularly, and 10 percent of those who drink will
eventually become alcoholics. In this study, the 250 people that Jack actually observes
represent the research _______.
a. cluster c. population
b. set d. sample

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 27
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

231. A random sample is a sample in which _______.
a. every member of a target population is chosen to be in the sample
b. members of the sample are chosen by chance from the general population, whether
or not they are members of the target population
c. every member of the target population has an equal chance of being chosen to be in
the experimental sample
d. members are prescreened to assure suitability for the study and are selected based
on researcher decisions

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 27
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

232. A sample in which every member of a population has an equal chance of being chosen
to participate in an experiment is called a(n) _______ sample.
a. analogue c. in vivo
b. stratified d. random

ANSWER: D
Diff: 1 Page: 27
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

233. ______ studies attempt to disentangle the roles of heredity and environment in
determining behavior.
a. Case c. Kinship
b. Analogue d. Naturalistic observation

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 28
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

234. Heredity plays a role in ______ characteristics.
a. neither our physical nor psychological
b. our physical but not our psychological
c. our psychological but not our physical
d. both our physical and psychological

ANSWER: D
Diff: 1 Page: 28
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

235. The basic building blocks of heredity are ______ and they regulate the development
of ______.
a. chromosomes; traits c. probands; chromosomes
b. genes; traits d. probands; genes

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 28
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

236. The basic building blocks of heredity are ______.
a. cells c. genes
b. atoms d. chromosomes

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 28
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

237. The rod-shaped genetic structures residing in the nuclei of cells are called ______.
a. ribosomes c. genes
b. nucleotides d. chromosomes

ANSWER: D
Diff: 1 Page: 28
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

238. A human cell normally contains ______ chromosomes.
a. 23 c. 69
b. 46 d. 92

ANSWER: B
Diff: 1 Page: 28
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

239. A human cell normally contains ______ pairs of chromosomes.
a. 23 c. 69
b. 46 d. 92

ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page: 28
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

240. There are ______ genes in the nucleus of a human body cell.
a. 1,000 c. 20,000 to 25,000
b. 5,000 to 10,000 d. over 1,000,000

ANSWER: C
Diff: 3 Page: 28
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

241. The set of traits specified by our genetic code is called our ______.
a. archetype c. phenotype
b. proband d. genotype

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 28
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

242. Our actual, expressed traits are called our ______.
a. archetype c. phenotype
b. daguerreotype d. genotype

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 28
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

243. There is a ______ percent overlap in genetic heritage between each parent and his or
her offspring.
a. 25 c. 75
b. 50 d. 100

ANSWER: B
Diff: 3 Page: 28
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

244. Jerry and Stanley are non-twin brothers; they would have a______ percent overlap in genetic
heritage.
a. 25 c. 75
b. 50 d. 100

ANSWER: B
Diff: 3 Page: 28
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

245. A proband is ______.
a. the subject of a case study
b. the case first diagnosed with a disorder, used for comparison in kinship studies
c. the random sample selected from a population in survey research
d. a group of relatives whose phenotypes and genotypes are studied longitudinally

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 28
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

246. Twin studies and adoptee studies are both examples of ______ studies.
a. analogue c. case
b. experimental d. kinship

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 28
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

247. Twins who originated from a single fertilized egg cell, who share 100 percent of their
genetic make-up are known as ______ twins.
a. monozygotic c. dizygotic
b. polyzygotic d. azygotic

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 28
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

248. Twins who develop from separate egg cells that were fertilized simultaneously, who
share 50% of their genetic heritage, are known as ______ twins.
a. monozygotic c. dizygotic
b. polyzygotic d. azygotic

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 28
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

249. Differences between monozygotic twins are the results of ______ differences.
a. subtle genetic c. personality
b. significant genetic d. environmental

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 28
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Conceptual

250. The percentage of cases in which both twins have the same disorder is called the ______
rate.
a. concordance c. compatibility
b. congruence d. consistency

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 28
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

251. Differences in the rates of concordance for monozygotic versus dizygotic twins
has suggested a strong genetic component for schizophrenia and ______.
a. posttraumatic stress disorder c. phobia
b. major depression d. postconcussion syndrome

ANSWER: B
Diff: 2 Page: 28
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

252. Aside from twins, another group that has been studied for genetic factors in the
appearance of psychological traits and disorders are ______.
a. children from small towns c. adoptees
b. narrow religious groups d. children with mental retardation

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 29
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

253. Sigmund Freud’s psychodynamic theory was based primarily on the use of ______ studies.
a. case c. quasi-experimental
b. correlational d. epidemiological

ANSWER: A
Diff: 1 Page: 29
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

254. Carefully drawn, intensive studies of the lives of individuals are called _______. They are based on clinical interviews, observations, and psychological tests.
a. quasi-experimental studies c. psychometric studies
b. epidemiological studies d. case studies

ANSWER: D
Diff: 2 Page: 29
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

255. Freud conducted a case study of ________.
a. Ludwig van Beethoven c. Leonardo da Vinci
b. Amadeus Mozart d. Otto Von Bismarck

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 29
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

256. A therapist engages in ten years of therapy with a patient diagnosed as having
dissociative identity disorder. When the therapy has concluded, the therapist uses her
extensive notes, drawn from clinical interviews with the patient, to write an extensive
history of the patient. The history is then published so that others can learn from the
therapist’s experiences with her patient. This technique is known as a(n) _______ study.
a. psychometric c. case
b. epidemiological d. naturalistic observation

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 29-30
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

257. Which of the following is a difficulty with the case-study method of research? a. Case studies are based on historical material.
b. Information drawn from case studies usually lacks enough depth and sufficient detail
for drawing meaningful conclusions.
c. Case studies lack the rigor of other research designs.
d. Case studies provide rich detail.
ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 29-30
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Conceptual

258. Research designs in which subjects are used as their own controls are called ______
designs.
a. quasi-experimental c. single-case experimental
b. correlational d. double-case experimental

ANSWER: C
Diff: 1 Page: 29-30
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

259. A researcher designs a study so that his subjects are observed for several weeks with
no treatment. They are then given a treatment for several weeks. This is followed by
several more weeks in which the treatment is withdrawn. Finally, the subjects are given
a second round of treatments. The effects of the first treatment, the withdrawal of
treatment, and the second treatment are measured. This study is typical of a _______
design.
a. case-study c. single-case experimental
b. quasi-experimental d. double-case experimental

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 29-30
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.10
Skill: Applied

260. A researcher sets up an experiment that will give subjects a double dose of treatment in
an A-B-A-B pattern. This pattern of treatment is known as a _______ design.
a. reversal c. progressive
b. repetitive d. multiple baseline

ANSWER: A
Diff: 2 Page: 30
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.10
Skill: Applied

261. Azrin and Peterson (1989) used an A-B-A-B experimental design to help a nine-year-old
girl control ______.
a. thumb-sucking c. a facial twitch
b. bed-wetting d. an eye tic

ANSWER: D
Diff: 3 Page: 30, 32
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.10
Skill: Factual

262. Which of the following is an aspect of critical thinking?
a. relying on feelings and gut impressions
b. remaining fixed in one’s beliefs and attitudes
c. seeking evidence to support or refute beliefs or claims
d. maintaining an attitude of non-skepticism

ANSWER: C
Diff: 2 Page: 31
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.10
Skill: Conceptual

263. A high positive correlation between stress and depression demonstrates that _______.
a. stress causes depression
b. depression causes stress
c. depression and stress are caused by other factors
d. stress and depression are somehow related to each other

ANSWER: D
Diff: 1 Page: 31
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.10
Skill: Conceptual

True-False Questions

264. Psychological disorders affect relatively few of us.

ANSWER: F
Diff: 1 Page: 4
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.1
Skill: Conceptual

265. Anxiety and depression are always abnormal responses to one’s situation.

ANSWER: F
Diff: 1 Page: 5
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.1
Skill: Conceptual

266. Uncommon behavior is abnormal.

ANSWER: F
Diff: 1 Page: 5-6
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.1
Skill: Conceptual

267. Behavior that is deemed abnormal in one society may be perceived as perfectly normal
in another.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 1 Page: 6
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.2
Skill: Factual

268. Many people today argue that homosexuality should be considered a
normal variation in behavior.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 1 Page: 6
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.2
Skill: Factual

269. We tend to characterize behavior we do not understand as “sick.”

ANSWER: T
Diff: 1 Page: 6
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.2
Skill: Factual

270. Abnormal behavior has multiple definitions.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 2 Page: 7
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.2
Skill: Factual

271. Claustrophobic behavior is characterized by intense fear of venturing into public places.

ANSWER: F
Diff: 1 Page: 7
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.3
Skill: Factual

272. Unfortunately, psychologists are unable to use various approaches, or models to explain abnormal behavior.

ANSWER: F
Diff: 2 Page: 8
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.3
Skill: Conceptual

273. Many traditional Native Americans claim to hear the spirits of people who have recently died
calling to them as they ascend to the afterlife.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 1 Page: 8
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.4
Skill: Factual

274. Concepts of health and illness have different meanings in different cultures.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 1 Page: 8
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.4
Skill: Factual

275. Throughout history, concepts of abnormal behavior have been shaped by the prevailing
worldview of the time.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 2 Page: 9
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

276. Hippocrates argued that illnesses of the body and mind were the result of possession by
supernatural spirits.

ANSWER: F
Diff: 1 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

277. The modern medical model of abnormal behavior can be traced to the work of a Greek
physician some 2,500 years ago.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 1 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

278. The Greek physician Galen discovered that arteries carried blood.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 1 Page: 10
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

279. The Renaissance is considered to be the transition from the medieval world to the
modern world.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 2 Page: 11
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

280. Fear of witches reached its height during the Middle Ages.

ANSWER: F
Diff: 1 Page: 11
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

281. Innocent people were drowned in medieval times as a way of certifying that they were
not possessed by the devil.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 1 Page: 11
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

282. Asylums, or “madhouses,” began to crop up throughout Europe in the mid-eighteenth
century.

ANSWER: F
Diff: 1 Page: 12
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

283. Many of the earliest asylums were leprosariums.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 1 Page: 12
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

284. A night’s entertainment in London a few hundred years ago may have included peering
at the inmates at the local asylum.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 1 Page: 12
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

285. The modern era of treatment can be traced to the efforts of individuals like Philippe Pinel.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 2 Page: 12
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

286. In the latter half of the nineteenth century, the belief that abnormal behavior could be
treated by moral therapy fell into disfavor.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 2 Page: 13
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

287. In the 1950s, many mental institutions were described as “human snake pits.”

ANSWER: T
Diff: 1 Page: 13
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

288. Phenothiazines represent a revolutionary group of major antidepressants.

ANSWER: F
Diff: 1 Page: 13
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

289. Many of the nation’s homeless people are discharged mental patients.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 1 Page: 14-15
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

290. All adopters of the medical model believe every pattern of abnormal behavior is a
product of defective biology.

ANSWER: F
Diff: 2 Page: 16
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

291. Cases of hysteria were a common occurrence in the late Victorian period, but are relatively
rare today.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 1 Page: 17
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

292. In the famous case of Anna O., Anna was suffering from amnesia.

ANSWER: F
Diff: 1 Page: 17
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

293. The first major psychological theory of abnormal behavior was developed by Joseph Breuer.

ANSWER: F
Diff: 1 Page: 17
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

294. Sociocultural theorists look for the causes of abnormal behavior in the failures of society.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 2 Page: 19
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Factual

295. Description is one of the primary objectives of science.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 2 Page: 20
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.7
Skill: Factual

296. To scientists, controlling behavior means coercing people into doing the bidding of others.

ANSWER: F
Diff: 2 Page: 21
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.7
Skill: Factual

297. A theory is a precise prediction about behavior that is examined in an experiment.

ANSWER: F
Diff: 2 Page: 20-21
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.7
Skill: Factual

298. The scientific method has four basic steps.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 1 Page: 21
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.7
Skill: Factual

299. The principle of informed consent precludes the use of naturalistic observation.

ANSWER: F
Diff: 1 Page: 22
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.8
Skill: Factual

300. In naturalistic observation, scientists make every effort to be obtrusive.

ANSWER: F
Diff: 2 Page: 22
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

301. Correlational research does not, in itself, demonstrate cause and effect.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 1 Page: 23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

302. One type of correlational study is the longitudinal study.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 1 Page: 23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

303. Suspected causal factors that are manipulated by researchers in an experiment are called
dependent variables.

ANSWER: F
Diff: 2 Page: 24
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

304. In an experiment, apparent treatment effects can stem from subjects’ expectations.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 2 Page: 25
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

305. Though placebos are routinely used in clinical research, evidence suggests that the effects
of placebos are generally weak.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 2 Page: 25
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

306. Placebo effects are strongest in pain studies.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 1 Page: 25
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

307. In order to carry out valid research, it may be necessary to keep people unaware of the
treatments they receive.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 2 Page: 25
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

308. A population is a segment or part of a sample.

ANSWER: F
Diff: 1 Page: 27
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

309. Epidemiological studies cannot control for selection factors.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 2 Page: 27
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

310. Recent evidence shows there are literally millions of genes in the nucleus of every cell in
the body.

ANSWER: F
Diff: 2 Page: 28
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

311. The closer people’s kinship, the more likely they are to share similar environmental
backgrounds.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 2 Page: 28-29
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

312. Sigmund Freud’s psychodynamic theory was developed primarily on the basis of
naturalistic observation.

ANSWER: F
Diff: 2 Page: 29
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

313. Case studies have been conducted on people who have been dead for hundreds of years.

ANSWER: T
Diff: 1 Page: 29
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

314. A weakness of case studies is that they lack a treatment group.

ANSWER: F
Diff: 2 Page: 30, 32
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

Essay Questions

315. Identify and discuss six criteria that are used to define abnormal behavior.

Diff: 1 Page: 5-7
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.2
Skill: Conceptual

316 Discuss the relationships between cultural beliefs, norms, and the labeling of behavior as
normal or abnormal.

Diff: 3 Page: 8-9
Topic: How Do We Define Abnormal Behavior?
Textbook LO: 1.4
Skill: Conceptual

317. Recount the history of the demonological approach to abnormal behavior, referring to
ancient and medieval times.

Diff: 2 Page: 9-12
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

318. Describe the development of treatment centers for abnormal behavior from asylums
through mental hospitals.

Diff: 3 Page: 12-14
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

319. Describe the major contributions to the study and treatment of abnormal behavior of three
important figures that lived before 1950.

Diff: 1 Page: 9-13
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

320. Discuss the reform movement and the use of moral therapy, focusing on roles of Pussin,
Pinel, Rush, and Dix.

Diff: 2 Page: 12-13
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

321. Discuss the factors associated with the current exodus from mental hospitals in the U.S.
and its results.

Diff: 1 Page: 14
Topic: Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.5
Skill: Factual

322. Describe three contemporary perspectives on abnormal behavior.

Diff: 2 Page: 16-19
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Conceptual

323. Describe and evaluate sociocultural and biopsychosocial perspectives.

Diff: 2 Page: 19
Topic: Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Textbook LO: 1.6
Skill: Conceptual

324. Discuss the objectives of a scientific approach to the study of abnormal behavior.

Diff: 2 Page: 18-19
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.7
Skill: Conceptual

325. Describe the steps involved in the scientific method.

Diff: 1 Page: 21-22
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.7
Skill: Conceptual

326. Define ethics and explain what ethical principles in research are designed to do. Also,
explain the principles of informed consent and confidentiality.

Diff: 3 Page: 22
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.8
Skill: Conceptual

327. Discuss the value and limitations of the naturalistic observation method.

Diff: 2 Page: 22-23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Conceptual

328. Discuss the value and limitations of correlational research.

Diff: 2 Page: 23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Conceptual

329. Discuss the value and limitations of longitudinal research.

Diff: 1 Page: 23
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Conceptual

330. Describe the purpose and features of the experimental method.

Diff: 1 Page: 24-25
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Conceptual

331. Explain ways in which experimenters control for subjects’ and researchers’ expectations.

Diff: 2 Page: 25-26
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

332. Describe three types of experimental validity.

Diff: 3 Page: 26-27
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Conceptual

333. Discuss the value of, and sources of error in, the epidemiological method.

Diff: 3 Page: 27
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Conceptual

334. Discuss the importance of drawing representative samples from target populations.

Diff: 2 Page: 27
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Conceptual

335. Explain how various kinship studies suggest roles for genetics in abnormal behavior.

Diff: 2 Page: 28-29
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Conceptual

336. Define the following terms: genes, chromosomes, genotype, phenotype and proband.

Diff: 1 Page: 28
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Factual

337. Discuss the value and limitations of the case-study method.

Diff: 2 Page: 29
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Conceptual

338. Provide an example of a single-case experimental design and explain how this helps
researchers overcome some of the limitations of the case-study method.

Diff: 3 Page: 29-30, 31-32
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.9
Skill: Applied

339. Explain why critical thinking is important in the study of abnormal psychology, and
briefly describe 7 key features of critical thinking.

Diff: 3 Page: 31-32
Topic: Research Methods in Abnormal Psychology
Textbook LO: 1.10
Skill: Conceptual

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