Abnormal Psychology Perspectives Introduction to DSM 5th Edition Test Bank

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Abnormal Psychology Perspectives Introduction to DSM 5th Edition Test Bank

CHAPTER1
ConceptsofAbnormalitythroughoutHistory

MultipleChoiceQuestions:

1) Yourhousematehasbeenoverlyconcernedwithkeepingthekitchenclean.Infact,hescrubsthesinksandcountersforhalfanhoureachtimesomeoneputssomethingon them.Inordertodeterminehisdiagnosis,apractitionerinNorthAmericawouldbemostlikelytoconsultthe
A) AmericanMedicalAssociation’sTreatmentManual(AMA-TM).
B) DiagnosticandStatisticalManual,fifthedition(DSM-5).
C) InternationalClassificationofMentalandBehaviouralDisorders(ICD-10).
D) DiagnosticandStatisticalManual,sixthedition(DSM-6).
E) TheNorthAmericanGuidetoPsychiatricDisorders(NAPD-IV).

Answer:B
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2) Psychopathologyrefersto
A) thesamedisorderaspsychopathy.
B) disordersofthebrain.
C) aphysicalcausetopsychologicalproblems.
D) onlyseverepsychologicaldisorders.
E) thestudyofthenatureofpsychologicalproblems.

Answer:E
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3) Accordingtothetext,behavior,speechorthoughtthatimpairsaperson’sfunctioning correspondsbesttowhichconceptbelow?
A) mentalillness
B) mentalproblem
C) brainpathology
D) psychologicalabnormality
E) psychologicaldisorder

Answer: D
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4) Whatisonedifficultyindefiningabnormalbehaviour?
A) eccentricbehaviourusuallyindicatesabnormalbehaviour
B) everyoneistosomedegreeabnormalintheirbehaviour
C) unusualbehaviourmaynotbeabnormalaccordingtodiagnosticcriteria
D) allpeopleexperienceanxietynowandthen
E) people’sbehaviourdependsonthesituation

Answer:C
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5) Abnormalbehaviourhasbeendefinedasthatwhichoccursinfrequently.Whichofthefollowingexamplesillustratesaproblemwiththisdefinition?
A) PeoplewithIQsbelow70areconsideredabnormal.
B) Mostpeoplegetdepressedfromtimetotime.
C) Mathematicalgeniusesareconsideredrareinthepopulation.
D) Childrenoftenbelieveintheexistenceofmonsters.
E) Anxietydisordersarerelativelyrareinagivenpopulation.

Answer:C
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6) Dr.Jayvonnaisworkingwithapatientwhohastoarrangeandrearrangeherfoodon herplateaftereachbite.Althoughherpatientdoesnotfindthisbehaviourstrange,otherpeoplefinditodd.Thedefinitionofabnormalityapplicabletothispatientis
A) statisticallyunusualbehaviour.
B) violatingthenormsofsociety.
C) distresstoselfandothers.
D) personaldysfunction.
E) expertdiagnosis.

Answer:B
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7) Perhapsthebiggestproblemwithusinginappropriatebehaviourasacriterionfor abnormalbehaviouris
A) whatisconsideredappropriatediffersovertimeandlocation.
B) mentallyillpeopleareusuallynotdangerous.
C) socialnormstendtobeconstantovertime.
D) inappropriatebehaviourisoftenthenorminNorthAmericanculture.
E) killersandmurderersaregenerallysane.

Answer: A
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8) TheauthorsdiscusstheViolationofCulturalNormscriterionas:
A) anessentialandsufficientcomponentindefiningpsychologicalabnormality
B) anecessarybutnotsufficientcomponentofdefiningabnormality
C) aconsiderationthatwilloftenberelevanttodefiningabnormality
D) distinctfromconsiderationsofpsychologicalabnormality
E) adistractionfromconsiderationsofabnormality

Answer:C
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9) Whichoneofthefollowinggroupsofprincipleshavebeenusedtodefineabnormality?
A) diagnosisbyanexpert,personaldistress,pooremotionalcontrol
B) personaldistress,delinquentactivity,pooremotionalcontrol
C) violationofnorms,abnormalintellectualfunctioning,personaldistress
D) infrequency,personaldistress,impairedfunctioning
E) psychiatricdiagnosis,harmfuldysfunction,abnormalintellectualfunctioning

Answer: D
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10) Whichisthemostsensiblewaytologicallycombinethecriteriausedtodefinepsychologicalabnormality?
A) [infrequencyORpersonaldistress]ANDimpairedfunctioning
B) [infrequencyORimpairedfunctioning]ANDpersonaldistress
C) infrequencyAND[personaldistressORimpairedfunctioning]
D) infrequencyANDpersonaldistressANDimpairedfunctioning
E) infrequencyORpersonaldistressORimpairedfunctioning

Answer:C
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11) Changesinthewaythatabnormalityhasbeenviewedovertimehasresultedin
A) aclearunderstandingoftheetiologyofdisorders.
B) effectivetreatmentsforalldisorders.
C) fewerdiagnosticcategories.
D) highreliabilityofalldiagnoses.
E) ashiftfromsupernaturaltonaturalcausesinexplainingdisorders.

Answer:E
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12) Ifyoulivedinasocietythatexplainedchangesintheweatherasbeinginfluencedby thegods,youwouldlikelyviewmadnessasbeingcausedby
A) schizophrenia.
B) demonpossession.
C) braindysfunction.
D) weaknessofcharacter.
E) irrationalthoughts.

Answer:B
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13) WhattypeoftreatmentwasthoughttobeusedbyStoneAgepeopletotreatmadness?
A) religiouschanting
B) death
C) herbalbrewstopoisonevilspirits
D) trephination
E) exorcism

Answer: D
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14) Severalmethodswereusedduringprehistorictimestotreatabnormalbehaviour.Whichapproach,however,wasNOTcommon?
A) trephination
B) bedrest
C) inducedtrances
D) specialcareinasylums
E) magic

Answer: D
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15) Towhomcanwecreditwiththeoriginalideathatdreamsplayanimportantroleinunderstandingmentalillness?
A) Freud
B) Aristotle
C) Plato
D) Hippocrates
E) Galen

Answer: D
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16) Hippocratesplayedamajorroleinbothhowthecausesandtreatmentofmentalillnesswereviewed.However,hisgreatestcontributiontopsychologywas
A) beingthefatherofpsychoanalysis.
B) provingthevalueofleadingahealthylifeinpreventingmadness.
C) emphasizingthenaturalcausesofmentalillness.
D) separatingthecausesofmadnessintomedicalandmagicalcauses.
E) hisideathatpsychologicalfunctioningresultedfromdisturbancesofbodilyfluids.

Answer:C
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17) AccordingtoHippocrates,mentaldisordersshouldbetreatedbywhichoneofthefollowing?
A) exorcism
B) magicalspells
C) trephination
D) healthydietandexercise
E) foodandwaterdeprivation

Answer: D
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18) Hippocratesbelievedthatpsychologicalfunctioningwasinfluencedbyimbalancesinbodilyfluids.EachofthefollowingwasconsideredanessentialfluidEXCEPT
A) blood.
B) blackbile.
C) brownbile.
D) greenbile.
E) phlegm.

Answer:C
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19) AnancientGreekwasbehavingquiteaggressivelyandwasquiteshort-tempered.He wouldlikelyhavebeendiagnosedashaving
A) toolittleyellowbile.
B) anexcessofblood.
C) excessphlegm.
D) toomuchyellowbile.
E) anoverabundanceofblackbile.

Answer: D
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20) PlatoandAristotleacceptedmanyofHippocrate’sideas,butrejectedothers.Whichofthefollowingbestdescribestheirbeliefaboutthecauseofmentalillness?
A) thatanimbalanceinessentialbodilyfluidsaffectedfunctioning
B) thatbraindysfunctionaffectedbehaviour
C) thatenvironmentalfactorsplayedthecriticalrole
D) lackofeducationcouldcausementalillness
E) thatmentalillnesshadnaturalcauses

Answer:E
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21) Theideathatbothmentalandphysicaldisorderswerecausedbyproblemsinthebodywasheldby
A) Soranus.
B) Aristotle.
C) Plato.
D) theGreekphysicianAretaeus.
E) Hippocrates.

Answer: A
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22) Jenniferisapsychotherapist,andsheconsiderstalkingaboutproblemstobetherapeutic.Whichofthefollowinggroupswouldmostlikelyagreewithher?
A) earlyEgyptians
B) Arabians
C) classicalGreekandRomans
D) EuropeansduringtheMiddleAges
E) prehistoricpeople

Answer:C
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23) EarlyArabianasylumswereestablishedto
A) protectsocietyfromthementallyill.
B) providethementallyillwithasafehaven.
C) beginthetraditionofgrouptherapy.
D) reintroducetrephinationasamajorformoftreatment.
E) fulfilltherequirementsoftheKoran.

Answer:B
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24) Avicenna’sTheCanonofMedicinemayhaveincludedearlyformsofwhichofthefollowingmodernmethodsoftreatment?
A) homeopathictreatment
B) dreamanalysis
C) behaviourtherapy
D) psychotherapy
E) bloodletting

Answer:C
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25) Thenotionof“possession”duringtheMiddleAgeswasoftenappliedto
A) peoplewhodisagreedwithChurchdoctrine.
B) peoplewhosinnedfrequently.
C) menwhobeattheirwives.
D) peoplewhohadsufferedanervousbreakdown.
E) peoplesufferingfromamentalillness.

Answer:E
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26) Duringthe13thand14thcenturies,awomancaughttalkingtohergardenplantswould
A) betreatedbyeitherprayerorexorcismofdemons.
B) betreatedwithhypnotism.
C) betreatedusingspecialherbsandpotions.
D) beaccusedofwitchcraftandtorturedtopreventherevilpowersfromspreading.
E) beconsideredpsychotic.

Answer: A
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27) Thespiritusvitaewas
A) adisorderwherepeoplebegintodanceinthestreetsanddrinkredwines.
B) aspiritbelievedtopossessindividualsandcausemadness.
C) abodilyfluidbelievedbyParacelsustoresultinmentalillness.
D) anaturalisticcauseofmadness.
E) thevenomofthetarantula.

Answer: D
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28) Yoursistersuddenlybeginstoleapabout,jumpinganddancinginthestreets.During theMiddleAges,shewouldmostlikelybediagnosedwith
A) melancholia.
B) trephination.
C) theTarantella.
D) anexcessofphlegm.
E) spiritusvitae.

Answer:C
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29) AccordingtoParacelsus,St.Vitus’Dancewascausedby
A) tarantulabites.
B) psychicconflicts.
C) imbalancesinbodilyfluids.
D) mania.
E) possessionbyevilspirits.

Answer:B
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30) WhichofthefollowingpersonsandtreatmentsDONOTmatch?
A) Paracelsusandhypnotism
B) Hippocratesandrest
C) Galenandsympatheticlistening
D) Weyerandchanting
E) Avicennaandbehaviortherapy

Answer: D
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31) WhatdotheviewsofParacelsus,TeresaofAvila,andSt.VincentdePaulhaveincommon?
A) Theyallattemptedtodevelopanewsystemofclassification.
B) Theybelievedthatreligiousapproachescouldleadtoacure.
C) Theyestablishedasylumstohumanelycareforthemad.
D) Theyargueforamorenaturalisticapproachtoviewingmentalillness.
E) EachofthemcontributedtoFreud’ssystemofpsychoanalysis.

Answer: D
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32) Theterm“bedlam”originatedfrom
A) amethodoftreatmentusedinearlyasylums.
B) thelackofbedsthatwascommoninearlyasylums.
C) thebizarrebehaviourknownasSt.Vitus’dance.
D) momentsoffrenzyamongmadpeople.
E) behaviourofthepatientsindeplorableearlyEuropeanasylums.

Answer:E
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33) EarlytreatmentofthementallyillintheUnitedStates
A) wasmoresuccessfulthanmanyoftheearliertreatmentshadbeen.
B) wasmorehumanethanmostoftheapproachesoutsideNorthAmerica.
C) wasattimessimilarincrueltytoearlysupernaturaltreatments.
D) differedfromEuropeantreatmentduetodifferentsocietalvalues.
E) waslesssuccessfulthantreatmentsintroducedduringtheMiddleAges.

Answer:C
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34) TreatmentinthetownofGheelissimilarto
A) moderndaytreatmentprograms.
B) ahumanisticapproach.
C) acommunitytreatmentapproach.
D) thatoftheearlyGreeks.
E) treatmentadvocatedbymanyoftheearlyEuropeans.

Answer:C
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35) English“workhouses”were
A) establishedduringtheEnlightenmentperiodtodealwiththeinsane.
B) runbythepatients.
C) runbyphysicians.
D) werespecialplaceswherethementallyillcouldwork.
E) usedtohidethepoorfromsociety.

Answer:E
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36) Whichofthefollowingindividualsisknownforpromotingamorehumanitarianapproachinmentalhospitals?
A) BenedictMorel
B) PhilippePinel
C) St.VincentdePaul
D) JohannesWeyer
E) BenjaminRush

Answer:B
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37) Thisindividual’scampaigntoimprovetheconditionsforthementallyillresultedintheopeningof32statehospitals,includingtwoinCanada.
A) DorotheaDix
B) Cabanis
C) BenjaminRush
D) WilliamTuke
E) PhilippePinel

Answer: A
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38) Thementalhygienemovement
A) resultedinareductioninthenumberofpeopleininstitutions.
B) resultedinanincreaseofpatientsinmentalinstitutions.
C) ledtoanincreaseinmoraltherapy.
D) wascriticizedbyPhilippePinel.
E) ledtotheadventofantipsychoticdrugs.

Answer:B
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39) AllofthefollowingarevalidcriticismsofthementalhygienemovementEXCEPT
A) psychosocialtreatmentswerelesseffectiveduetothelargenumberofpatients.
B) physicaltreatmentswereoftenunpleasant.
C) livingconditionsintheasylumwereunpleasant.
D) theoriginalgoalsofthemovementwerelessthannoble.
E) overcrowdinginasylumspreventedpropercare.

Answer: A
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40) Moraltherapyimpliesthat
A) psychologicaltherapyshouldbeadministeredbytheChurch.
B) psychologicaltherapyshouldbeusedmoreoften.
C) mentallyillpatientscanbenefitfromspiritualenlightenment.
D) mentallyillpatientsneedtobetaughtamoralisticapproachtolife.
E) mentallyillpatientscanbetreatedwithoutchemicalorphysicalrestraints.

Answer:E
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41) WhichofthefollowingaccomplishmentsareNOTattributedtoPinel?
A) lookingtonaturalexplanationsasthecauseofmentalillness
B) clearlydescribingthesymptomsofdisorders
C) emphasizingtheroleofpsychologicalandsocialfactorsinthedevelopmentofmentalillness
D) developingasystematicapproachtoclassifyingdisorders
E) bringingmoraltherapytoNorthAmerica

Answer:E
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42) Cabanis(1757-1808)introducedtheideathatpersonalfactorsaswellassomaticfactorsaccountedformentaldisorders.Histheoriesencouragedthe approachtotreatment.
A) physical
B) social
C) institutional
D) psychological
E) biological

Answer: D
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43) introduced“degeneration”theory,whichproposedthatabnormalfunctioningwastransmittedbyhereditaryprocesses.
A) Pinel
B) Cabanis
C) CharlesDarwin
D) CesareLombroso
E) BenedictMorel

Answer:E
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44) ClinicalPsychiatry,publishedbyKraepelinin1883,wasanimportanttextbookbecauseit
A) introducedpioneeringtreatmentsforseverementaldisorders.
B) explainedthecausesofmanycommonmentaldisorders.
C) attemptedtoclassifymentalillnesses.
D) joinedtogethertheprofessionsofclinicalpsychologyandpsychiatry.
E) describedmethodsoftreatmentforpsychiatricdisorders.

Answer:C
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45) Whichofthefollowingareclassificationsystemsofmentalillness?
A) CP-10
B) GPI
C) ECT
D) WRS-R
E) DSM-5

Answer:E
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46) “Allmentaldisordersaretheresultofbiologicalproblems.”Whowouldbemostlikelytoagreewiththisstatement?
A) Breuer
B) Kraepelin
C) Pinel
D) Freud
E) Watson

Answer:B
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47) Kraepelin’ssystemofclassificationofmentalillness
A) didnotinfluencelaterclassificationsystems.
B) suggestedthatpsychologicalfactorscauseddisorders.
C) failedtorecognizethatcertaingroupsofsymptomstendedtooccurtogether.
D) recognizedthatdifferentdisordersweredistinct.
E) offeredsuggestionsfortreatment.

Answer: D
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48) Groupsofsymptomsthattendtooccurtogetherarecalled
A) biological.
B) disabilities.
C) categories.
D) diatheses.
E) syndromes.

Answer:E
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49) Symptomsduringthelaterstagesofgeneralparesisoftheinsanemayshowsimilarityto
A) bipolardisorder.
B) disorderssuchasAlzheimer’s.
C) antisocialpersonalitydisorder.
D) autism.
E) schizophrenia.

Answer:B
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50) Thegermtheoryofdiseaseledtotheideathat
A) itwasimportanttowashyourhandsafterbeingwithpsychiatricpatients.
B) onlybiologicaltreatmentsarebeneficialformentalillness.
C) heredityplaysanimportantroleinthetransmissionofmentaldisease.
D) GeneralParesisoftheInsanemaybeaconsequenceofsyphilis.
E) germsmaycauseanxiety.

Answer: D
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51) Somatogenesisrefersto
A) adisorderwherepeoplefeeltheirbodyisnottheirs.
B) theideathatmentaldisordersarecausedbybiologicalfactors.
C) somatizationdisorder.
D) amethodoftreatinggeneralparesis.
E) theideathatmentaldisordersarecausedbypsychologicalfactors.

Answer:B
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52) InsulinwasusedbySakelduringthemid-20thcenturyinordertotreat:
A) schizophrenia
B) anxietydisorders
C) depression
D) diabetes
E) alcoholism

Answer: A
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53) Sakeladministeredinsulintopatientsinordertoinduce whichhebelievedwouldcureorreducethesymptomsofschizophrenia
A) convulsions
B) seizures
C) shock
D) coma
E) lowbloodsugar

Answer: D
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54) ECT(electricshocktherapy)provedtobemostsuccessfulintreating
A) epilepsy.
B) anxiety.
C) drugaddiction.
D) depression.
E) schizophrenics.

Answer: D
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55) Dr.Ramostreatspatientssufferingfrommooddisorders,andshebelievesthattheirillnessesarearesultofimbalancesofchemicalsinthebrain.Shewouldmostlikely adheretowhichfieldofpsychology?
A) psychopharmacology
B) cognitivepsychology
C) psychoanalysis
D) clinicalpsychology
E) healthpsychology

Answer: A
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56) JasonhasbeengivenRitalintocontrolhishyperactivemoods.Heisreceiving
A) pharmacotherapy.
B) palliativetherapy.
C) psychotherapy.
D) psychosurgery.
E) psychoanalysis.

Answer: A
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57) Thetextbookinformsusthatprocessofdeinstitutionalizationwassetinmotionby three“revolutions”ormovements:
A) pharmacologicalrevolution;patients’rightsandcommunitymentalhealthmovements
B) TheFrenchRevolutionandtheappointmentofPhilippePinel;patients’rightsmovement;upheavalsinvariouslocalCanadianasylums
C) theFrenchRevolution;AmericanRevolution;thepatients’rightsmovement
D) TheFrenchRevolution;AmericanRevolution;Pinel’s“revolution”
E) noneoftheabove

Answer: A
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58) Mesmerbelievedthathysteriawastheresultof
A) awanderinguterus.
B) disturbancesinthedistributionofmagneticfluids.
C) imbalancesinbrainchemicals.
D) toolittleoftheneurotransmitteracetylcholine.
E) animalmagnetism.

Answer:B
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59) YouareoneofMesmer’sassistantsduringthe1700s.Yourtreatmentofchoicefor dealingwithhysteriawouldbeconsideredapredecessorof
A) psychopharmacotherapy.
B) hypnotism.
C) spiritualhealing.
D) thecatharticmethod.
E) psychotherapy.

Answer:B
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60) Whichseriesdepictsthebestorderofthetransmissionofideas?
A) Charcot>Mesmer>Breuer>Janet>Freud
B) Mesmer>Charcot>Breuer>Janet>Freud
C) Charcot>Freud>Breuer>Mesmer>Janet
D) Charcot>Freud>Mesmer>Janet>Breuer
E) Mesmer>Charcot>Janet>Breuer>Freud

Answer:E
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61) Whichtheoristshaveapsychogenicapproachtounderstandingpsychopathology?
a) Freud;Watson;Meichenbaum
b) Morel;Freud;Watson
c) Kraeplin;Morel;Freud
d) Krafft-Ebing;Morel;Cerletti
e) Cerletti;Janet;Pavlov

Answer: A
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62) believedthathypnotismwasnotvaluableintreatinghysterics.
A) Braid
B) Breuer
C) Charcot
D) Janet
E) Watson

Answer:E
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63) Inthemidtolate1800s,severaltherapistsbecamequitewellknown. Whichofthefollowingrepresentsacorrectlymatchedtherapistandhistreatment?
A) Breuer&talktherapy
B) Charcot&anesthesiatherapy
C) Mesmer&animalhypnosis
D) Freud&sextherapy
E) Watson&hypnotherapy

Answer: A
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64) Inwritinganessayonbehaviourism,youwouldbelikelytoincludeallofthefollowingstatementsEXCEPT
A) abnormalbehaviourislearned.
B) psychologymustberestrictedtoobservablebehaviour.
C) behaviouralapproachesproducedarevolutioninpsychologicalthought.
D) Watsonacknowledgedthatabnormalbehaviourwaslikelypresentatbirth.
E) behaviouralapproacheshavebecomeestablishedintreatmentofdisorders.

Answer: D
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65) Jonahisafraidofheights.Dr.MorlinemploysanapproachtodealwithJonah’s phobiathatinvolveshavingJonahpracticeexposinghimselftohighplaces.Thisapproachwouldbestbeviewedas
A) psychopharmacological.
B) behavioural.
C) biological.
D) cathartic.
E) psychoanalytical.

Answer:B
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66) ThefirstasylumforthementallyillestablishedinCanadawas
A) VancouverPsychiatricHospital.
B) Montreal’sAllenMemorialHospital.
C) theRockwoodasyluminKingston.
D) theHotelDieuinQuebec.
E) theHotelDieuinCalgary.

Answer: D
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67) Duringthe17thcentury,inwhichCanadianprovincewasitthatthedevelopmentof properplacesofcareforthementallyillwasmostaccepted?
A) Alberta
B) Manitoba
C) Quebec
D) BritishColumbia
E) Ontario

Answer:C
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68) ThefirsttextbookprintedinCanadadealingwithcareandhousingofthementally ill
A) encouragedpatienceandtolerance.
B) suggestedthatthementallyillbetreatedathome.
C) reflectedthemoraltherapyapproach.
D) recommendedtreatingthemwithfloggings.
E) recommendeddrugtherapy.

Answer: D
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69) ArchivalevidenceshowsthatmanyearlylobotomieswereperformedinCanadaprimarilyto:
A) restorecalmandreasontothepatientsothattheycanparticipateinpsychotherapy
B) reducesufferinginpatientswithacuteoccipitaldysfunction
C) alleviatehospitalmanagementproblemsandadvanceresearch
D) determinetheroleofthecerebellumincasesofsevereemotionalproblems
E) cureschizophrenia

Answer:C
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70) LobotomieswerewidelyusedtreatmentsinCanadaduringthemid-1940s.Thistreatmentinvolved
A) lesioningofthebrainbyelectrodes.
B) pharmacotherapy.
C) disconnectionofthefrontallobesofthebrain.
D) removalofthecerebellum.
E) removaloftheovariesinwomen.

Answer:C
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71) Montreal’sAllenMemorialHospitalwas
A) thefirstplaceinCanadatousepsychoanalysis.
B) foundedbyEwenCameron.
C) aplacewherethecriminallyinsanewerehoused.
D) thesiteofaresearchprojectfundedbytheCIA.
E) aleadingCanadianhospitalinthetreatmentandcareofpsychiatricpatients.

Answer: D
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72) Cameron’sexperimentswereproblematicbecause
A) heattemptedtobrainwashpatientsthroughvarious“treatments”.
B) patientsagreedtoparticipate.
C) hedidnotrealizetheCIAwereinvolved.
D) theyreceivedpublicapproval.
E) hispatientswerenottroubledbytheresearch.

Answer: A
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73) Dr.RuthKajandercanbenotedfor
A) uniqueblendofdrugandtalktherapywithseverelydisorderedpatients.
B) herroleintheCIA-fundedresearchinMontreal.
C) recognizingthevalueoftranquillizersintreatingdepression.
D) treatingandreducinganxietyinpatientspriortosurgery.
E) usingchlorpromazinetotreatschizophrenics.

Answer:E
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74) EachofthefollowingpersonsbasedinCanadacontributedtoboththeoryandtreatmentEXCEPT
A) J.F.Lehman.
B) DonaldMeichenbaum.
C) AlbertBandura.
D) RuthKajander.
E) RichardWalters.

Answer: A
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75) WhichofthefollowingpersonsandaccomplishmentsareINCORRECTLY matched?
A) Breuerandhypnosis
B) Meichenbaumandcognitive-behaviourtherapy
C) Banduraandsociallearningtheory
D) Kajanderanddepression
E) Banduraandaggressivebehaviour

Answer: D
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76) CanadianpsychologistDonaldMeichenbaum’searlyworkcontributedsignificantlytothe growth of therapy.
A) moral
B) social-behaviour
C) psychopharmalogical
D) cognitive-behavioural
E) sociallearning

Answer: D
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77) TheMentalHealthCommissionofCanada(MHCC)aimsto:
A) beacatalystforthereformofmentalhealthpolicies
B) facilitate,enable,andsupportanationalapproachtomentalhealthissues
C) diminishstigmaanddiscriminationfacedbyCanadianslivingwithmentaldisorders
D) disseminateevidence-basedinformationaboutmentalhealthandmentalillness
E) alloftheabove

Answer:E
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78) Evidence-basedpracticeisdefinedinthetextbookas:
A) integratingscientificevidenceandindividualexpertisetoinformoptimumclientcare
B) gatheringevidencethatcertainmethodsareapplicabletocertaindisorders
C) gatheringdatafromclinicalpracticetoinformclinicalresearch
D) choosingmethodsinclinicalpracticethatarebaseduponexperimentalevidence
E) choosingmethodsinclinicalpracticethatarebaseduponcasestudyevidence

Answer: A
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True/FalseQuestions:

79) Mentalillnessconveysthesamemeaningaspsychologicalabnormality,butitimpliesamedicalorsomatogenicratherthanpsychogeniccause.
A) True
B) False

Answer: A
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80) Psychopathologyreferstotheproblemssufferedbypeoplewithpsychologicaldisorders.
A) True
B) False

Answer: A
Diff:1 Type: TF PageRef:4 Skill:Factual

81) Psychologicalabnormalityreferstodysfunctionalbehaviorwithpsychogenic cause.
A) True
B) False

Answer:B
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82) Accordingtothestatisticalconcept,abnormalbehavioristhatwhichoccursrelativelyinfrequently.
A) True
B) False

Answer: A
Diff:1 Type: TF PageRef:4 Skill:Factual

83) Distressmustbepresentinorderforanindividualtobediagnosedassufferingfromamentaldisorder.
A) True
B) False

Answer:B
Diff:2 Type: TF PageRef:4 Skill:Conceptual

84) Manymentallyillpeopleareunpredictableanddangeroustothemselvesand others.
A) True
B) False

Answer:B
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85) ThomasSzaszclaimedthatthelabelsusedtodescribementaldisordersreflectedwaysofcontrollingindividualssufferingproblemsinliving.
A) True
B) False

Answer: A
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86) ThomasSzaszsuggestedthatpsychiatryinventedmentaldisordersinordertowrest controloverpeoplewithmentaldisordersfromtheclergy.
A) True
B) False

Answer: A
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87) SigmundFreudhasbeencalledthefatherofmodernmedicine.
A) True
B) False

Answer:B
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88) Thebodilyfluidsbelievedtoinfluencementalfunctioningwerecalledhumours.
A) True
B) False

Answer: A
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89) TheancientphysicianGalenbelievedthatmentaldisorderswereentirelytheresultof physicalcauses.
A) True
B) False

Answer:B
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90) TheArabworld’sapproachtodealingwiththementallyillwasthatofcompassion andhumanity.
A) True
B) False

Answer: A
Diff:1 Type: TF PageRef:10 Skill:Factual

91) GalenwroteTheCanonofMedicine,oneofthemostwidelyreadmedicalbookseverwritten.
A) True
B) False

Answer:B
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92) SupernaturalexplanationsofmentalillnessbecamepopularinEuropeduringtheMiddleAges.
A) True
B) False

Answer: A
Diff:1 Type: TF PageRef:10-11 Skill:Conceptual

93) IntheMiddleAgesitwasgenerallybelievedthatthosewhowereinsanewerepossessed.
A) True
B) False

Answer: A
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94) JohannesWeyerrejectedthefourhumorstheoryofmentalillnessandclaimedthatmentalillnessresultedfromdisturbancesofthespiritusvitae.
A) True
B) False

Answer:B
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95) Paracelsusbelievedthatpsychicconflictsmayresultinmentalillnessandtreatedpatientsusingandearlyformofhypnotism.
A) True
B) False

Answer: A
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96) ThefirstmentalinstitutioninNorthAmericawasbuiltbytheMoorsatSan HippolytoinMexico.
A) True
B) False

Answer:B
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97) TeresaofAvilaandSt.VincentdePaulinfluencedthedevelopmentofamorescientificapproachtotreatingmentalillness.
A) True
B) False

Answer: A
Diff:1 Type: TF PageRef:13 Skill:Factual

98) Duringthe17thcenturyinEurope,thetrendwastowardanincreasinglymorehumaneandrationalapproachtodealingwiththementallyill.
A) True
B) False

Answer:B
Diff:2 Type: TF PageRef:12-13 Skill:Factual

99) PhilippePinelwasresponsibleforbringingmoraltherapytoNorthAmerica.
A) True
B) False

Answer:B
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100) Immersionincoldwater,inducingconvulsionswithinsulinandelectricshockweretreatmentsbasedonthebeliefthatsuddenshockcouldproducerecoveryfrommentalillness.
A) True
B) False

Answer: A
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101) In1949,aFrenchdoctordiscoveredthatsoldierswerecalmedbeforesurgeryby chloropromazine;hesharedthisfindingwithpsychiatristswhohadsimilarsuccessincalmingpatientswithseriousmentalillness;thesuccessofthisdrugtriggeredthe“pharmacologicalrevolution”thatfollowed.
A) True
B) False

Answer: A
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102) Deinstitutionalizationinthe1950’swasagreatsuccess,thankstothecarefuland advanceplanningofcommunitymentalhealthprograms.
A) True
B) False

Answer:B
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103) Mesmer’sworkwithhysteriasparkedaninterestinpsychologicalexplanationsof disorders.
A) True
B) False

Answer: A
Diff:2 Type: TF PageRef:18 Skill:Conceptual

104) TheearlyeffortsofCanadianprovincialgovernmentstocarefortheinsanewerecharacterizedbyanunsystematicapproach.
A) True
B) False

Answer: A
Diff:1 Type: TF PageRef:19 Skill:Factual
105) AlbertBanduraandRichardWalterswereresponsiblefordevelopingcognitivebehaviouraltherapy.
A) True
B) False

Answer:B
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EssayQuestions:

106) Explanationsforabnormalbehaviourdependonvariousfactors.Useseveralexamplesanddescribesomereasonswhycertainbehavioursareorarenotconsidered“abnormal.”

Answer:Somepeopleholdcertainbeliefsthatothersmayconsideroddorbizarre.However,thedifficultythatexistsisdeterminingwhetherornotaparticularbehaviourisabnormal.Forexample,extremelyreligiousindividualsmaybelieveinspiritsandhealingpowers,buttheyarenotmentallydisordered.Althoughsomeonemaybehaveinanodd manner,itdoesnotnecessarilymeanthatheorsheispsychologicallydisordered.As well,someonewhocommitscriminalactsisbehavinginadeviantmanner,butisnotmentallydisordered.Therefore,itisimportanttokeepinmindthatourinterpretationsor ideasofhowotherpeoplebehavemaynotnecessarilyimplythatthatindividualismentallyill.

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107) Brieflydescribeandcritiquetheprinciplesusedtoestablishthecriteriafor abnormality.Whichdefinitionbestdefinestheconceptofabnormality?

Answer:Severalprinciplesarecommonlyusedwhendeterminingthedefinitionof abnormality.Thestatisticalconceptclaimsthatbehaviourshouldbejudgedabnormalifitoccursinfrequentlyinthepopulation.However,notallinfrequentthoughtsoractionsshouldbeconsideredabnormal.ThosewithanextremelyhighIQarerare,butwouldbeconsideredgiftedasopposedtoabnormal.Aswell,someproblembehavioursarequitecommon(e.g.,depression,alcoholism).Personaldistressanddysfunctionareoftenused ascriteria.Manicpatientsmayfeellittledistress,however,andindividualswhofeeldissatisfiedorindespairwouldnotbelabelledabnormal.Schizophrenics,forexample,maybehaveinwayscountertosocialnorms;yet,sodocriminals,andnotallcriminalsarediagnosedwithamentaldisorder.Itisgenerallyamentalhealthexpertwho determineswhetheranindividualsuffersfromadisorder,yetsomebelievethatmentalillnessissociallyconstructedandjudgeddifferentlybydifferentpersons.Noneoftheabovecriteria,onitsown,issatisfactoryindefiningabnormalbehaviour.Nosinglecriterionmustbepresentorsufficientindefiningabnormalbehaviour,andgenerallyallareusedtosomedegree.
Diff:2 Type: ES PageRef:4-7 Skill:Conceptual

108) Approachestoconceptualizingandtreatingabnormalityhavechangedovertime. Whyisitvaluabletobeawareofthehistoricalapproachestotreatingthementallyill?

Answer:Manychangeshaveoccurredthroughouttimeinthewayswehavetheorizedaboutandtreatedmentalillness.Byexamininghistoricalaccounts,wearebetterabletounderstandwhatwedotoday.Mostoftheideasaboutabnormalbehaviourreflectthegeneralviewsofthetime.Whenwecriticizetheideasandtreatmentsusedinthepast,we mustrememberthat,inthefuture,peoplemayscoffatourmethodsoftreatment.Our ideasofwhatconstitutesabnormalbehaviourhavechangedovertime.Forexample,inthepast,individualshavingvisionswereseenasgifted,whereastodaytheywouldbeviewedaspsychotic.Supernaturalcauses,suchaspossession,wereacceptedinthepastascausingmentalillness,whiletodaynaturalcausessuchasbiology,theenvironment,or personalexperiencesareaccepted.Itisimportanttokeepinmindthatmanyindividuals,fromCanadaandelsewhere,havemadediscoveriesthathaveinfluencedwherewearetoday.Manymoreresearchandtreatmentfindingswilllikelyinfluencefuturetreatmentandconceptualizationofmentaldisorders.

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109) CompareandcontrastthecausesandtreatmentmethodsformadnessusedinStoneAgeculturesandbytheancientGreeksandRomansandtheArabs.

Answer:EvidencefromprehistoryhasimpliedthattheStoneAgesurgeonscutsmallholesintheskull(trephination),possiblytoreleaseevilspiritsthatwerecausingthevictimtoengageinabnormalbehaviour.Hunter-gatherersocietiesviewedmadnessas resultingfromsupernaturalcauses,andtheytendedtoinvokeanemotionalreleasethroughtheuseoftrances.GreekandRomanthoughtemphasizedmorenaturalcausesfor madness.Hippocratesbelievedthatmadnesswascausedbyanimbalanceinbodilyfluids,andhistreatmentmethodsreflectedamorescientificapproach.Hesuggestedtreatmentssuchasexercise,bleedingandvomiting,andagooddiet.Platoemphasizedsocioculturalcausesandlookedtotheimportanceofdreams.Histreatmentapproachreflectedmoreofcommunitycare,suggestingthatrelativesshouldcareforthementallyillathome.Galenstressedbothphysicalandmentalsourcesofdisorder,andeffectivetreatmentsincludedcomfortablesurroundings(nostressfulprocedures),andtalkingaboutdifficulties.TheArabsheldasupportive,compassionateattitudetowardsthementallyill.Treatmentreflectedtheseattitudes,withasylumsbeingplacesofrefugeandprotection.Thus,viewsofmentalillnesschangedfromsupernaturaltonatural,withtreatmentmethodschangingaswell.

Diff:2 Type: ES PageRef:8-11 Skill:Application
110) DescribethecontributionsoftwohistoricalpersonsinEuropewhoinfluencedthetheoryandtreatmentofmentalillness.

Answer:Paracelsus(1493-1541)wasoneofthefirsttoattackthebeliefsaboutthesupernaturalandofferednaturalisticoriginstomadness.Herejectedthefourhumours theoryofHippocratesandattemptedtodevelopanewsystemclassificationwhereallmentalillnesswasseentostemfromdisturbancesofthespiritusvitae.Hewasthefirsttosuggestthatpsychicconflictscausedmentaldisordersandutilizedanearlyversionof hypnotismastreatment.Hisviewrepresentedamorescientificapproachtodealingwithmentalillness.
PhilippePinel(1745-1826),wasoneoftheleadersofthereformmovementtoimproveconditionsforthementallyill.Pinelwasatruehumanitarianwhocarriedoutdramaticchangesininstitutionsatatimewhenfewacceptedhisideas.Aswell,heinfluencedpsychiatryasawholebydevelopingasystematicandstatisticalapproachtoclassifying, managing,andtreatingmentaldisorders.Hewasascientistwhoemphasizednaturalcausestomentalillnessandfirmlybelievedthatthementallyillshouldbetreatedwithcompassionandrespect.

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111) Despiteitsaims,thementalhygienemovementofthe19thcenturydidnotmeetitsgoals.Describethereasonsforthismovement,theinstrumentalfiguresresponsiblefor thismovement,andthereasonsbehinditslackofsuccess.

Answer:Conditionsforthementallyillduringthe1800swerehorrendous.Thementallyillwereleftwanderingfromplacetoplaceandwererarelytakenpropercareof.In poorhouses,theywerechainedupandoftentauntedbyvisitors.Thus,reformersinsistedontheestablishmentofmentalasylumswherepropercarewouldbegiventothementallyill.DorotheaDix(1802-1877),whobecameoneoftheleadersofthementalhygienemovement,visitedalocalprison,and,horrifiedbytheconditions,becamedeterminedtomakechanges.Shewasalsoconcernedwiththesufferingofmentalpatients,andbegananationwidecampaigntoimprovelifefortheseindividuals.Thus,thegoalofthementalhygienemovementwastoprotectandprovidehumanetreatmentforthementallyill.However,themovementofpeopleintolargeasylumsdidnotmakelifebetter.Therewas aproblemwithovercrowding,andstaffdidnothavethetimetoproperlycarefortheconsiderablenumberofpatients.Physiciansreplacedpsychosocialtreatmentswithphysicaltreatments,whichwereoftencruelratherthancompassionate.

Diff:2 Type: ES PageRef:13 Skill:Factual
112) Moraltherapywasanimportantapproachinthetreatmentofthementallyill.Definethebasisofthisapproach,describetheindividualsresponsibleforpromotingthisapproach,andwhyitlostpopularity.

Answer:Moraltherapy,advocatedbyhumanitarianreformers(suchasLett,Pinel,Tuke,andRush),gainedpopularityinEuropeandNorthAmericaduringtheearly1800s.Moraltherapywasbasedontheideathattheinsaneshouldbetreatedhumanely,withoutphysicalrestraints.Patientsweretobetreatedwithcompassionandrespect,inarelaxing,stress-freeenvironment.Mostadvocatesofmoraltherapybelievedtheycouldcurementalillnessthroughpeacefulsurroundings,properdietandexercise,andactivities.In fact,moraltherapydidappeartohavepositivebenefits.However,duringthe1900s, moraltherapyinCanadalostpopularityandwasreplacedbyphysicalandchemicalrestraintsandsomatictherapy.Publicinstitutionsbecamelarger,thusdecreasingtheuseofmoraltherapy.Biologicalapproachessuggestedthatmentalproblemscouldbesolvedquicklyandeasilythroughsurgeryormedication.Eventoday,noonetherapyquiteexemplifiesthehumaneapproachofmoraltherapy.

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113) ThegrowthofmentalhealthservicesinCanadahasbeencharacterizedbybothpositiveandnegativeaccomplishments.Describetwoofthenegativepracticesusedand speculateontheimportanceoftheseeventsformodernpractices.

Answer:VariousharshmethodshavebeenusedinthenameoftreatingthementallyillinCanada,evenaslateasthemid-1900s.Onewidelyusedtreatmentmethodwas psychosurgery,suchasprefrontallobotomies.TensofthousandsofCanadiansduringthe1940s-60shadthefrontallobesoftheirbrainsdisconnectedorsurgicallyremoved.Most oftheseearlylobotomiesappearedtobeperformedtoadvanceresearchormakelifeeasierforthestaff,asopposedtothehealthofthepatient.
AnotherabuseofpsychiatricpowerinCanadawasthebrainwashingexperimentsperformedbyDr.EwenCameron,atMontreal’sAllenMemorialHospitalduringthelate1950sandearly1960s.Cameron“treated”thepatientstomassivedosesof electroconvulsivetherapy,prolongedsensorydeprivation,andchemically-inducedsleep.Duringtheirperiodsofsleep,heplayedaudiotapestothepatientstellingthemhow horribletheywereandtheymustchange.TheseunfortunatepatientswerealsoinjectedwithLSDandwerenottoldthattheywerebeingusedinaresearchexperiment.
Thesetwoexamplesmakeusawareoftheimportanceoftreatingpatientsethicallyand withrespectandhumanity.Itisimportantthatpeopleinchargeofthementallyilldonotabusetheirpowerandthattheirtreatmentbeproperlymonitored.Weneedtomakeanattempttohelpthementallyillwithaslittlediscomfortaspossible.

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114) Describewhythediscoverythatsyphiliswasthecauseofgeneralparesiswas importanttothemodernviewofmentalillness.

Answer:RichardvonKrafft-Ebing(1840-1902)wasinterestedinthepossibilitythatpatientssufferingfromGeneralParesisoftheInsane(GPI)mayhaveacquireditthroughinfection.FollowingPasteur’sgermtheoryofdisease,Krafft-EbingdiscoveredthatGPI wasalong-termeffectofsyphilis.Thisfindingsparkedtheviewthatallmentaldisorders mightbecausedbyinfectionsorsomeotherbiologicalfactors.Somatogenesis(thebeliefthatpsychopathologyiscausedbybiologicalfactors)becameapopularapproachfor thoseinthementalhealthfield.Therewasincreasedoptimismthatalldisorderswouldbecuredbymedicalmeans.ThediscoverythatGPIwascausedbysyphilisresultedinamorescientificapproachtoviewingmentalillnessandencouragedtheuseofvariousphysicalapproachestotreatment.

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115) Compareandcontrastthesomatogenicandpsychogenicapproachestomentalhealthanddescribethepositiveeffectthattheseapproacheshavehad.

Answer:Thesomatogenicapproachfocusesonbiology.Somatogenecistsassumethatmentalillnessesarecausedbyinfectionsordisruptedbiologicalfunctioning.Theearlysomatogeneciststhoughtthatmedicationorsurgerywould“cure”theinfectionor physicalproblem,andmentalhealthwouldberenewed.Thisapproachwasquitepopularduringthelate1800sandresultedinamorescientificapproachtopsychology,aswellas experimentationwithdifferenttypesofphysicaltreatments.Duringthe1950s, pharmacologicalagentsbecameavailableandwereassociatedwiththeideathatmentaldisordersarecausedbychemicalimbalancesinthebrain.Duringthistime,theeffectsthatneurotransmittershadonbehaviourwasdiscoveredandmanydrugsweresynthesizedwhichcouldbeusedtotreatpsychiatricpatients.Thisprovedtobeveryvaluable.
Psychogenicapproachesfocusonthepsychologicalfactorsunderlyingmentalillness.TheseapproachesincludeFreud’spsychoanalyticapproach,Watson’sbehaviourism,andnumerousothers.Mesmer’sworkwithhysteriaspurredinterestinthisapproach,treating hysteriawithanearlyformofhypnosis.CharcotandJanetbecameparticularlyinterestedinpsychologicalexplanationsofhysteriaandtheuseofhypnosisasatreatment.Thus, psychoanalysiswasborn,asBreuerandFreudbegantoemploymethodssuchas hypnosisandencouragingpatientstotalkabouttheirpastandtheirproblems. Behaviouristsbelievedthatabnormalbehaviourwaslearnedandcouldbeunlearned,andthatinorderforpsychologytofunctionasascience,onlyobservablebehaviourshouldbefocusedon.
Althoughextremelydifferent,bothmodelshavegeneratedmuchresearchandincreasedourknowledgeaboutthecausesofmentalillnesses,andgeneratedeffectivetreatments.

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116) Afterreadingaboutthehistoryofhowmentalillnesshasbeendealtwith,youaredeterminedtoadvancetheprofessionofpsychology.YouhavebeenchosentospeakataconferencefortheCPATaskForcetopromoteevidence-basedpractice(EBP)inclinicalpsychology.DefineEBP,statethe“goods”thatitpromiseshowitcandeliverthem. OperationalizetheconceptofEBPforclinicians(i.e.,whatbehaviorsonthepartoftheclinicianareentailedbyacommitmenttoEBP?);makerecommendationsforhowthiscouldbeimplementedinone’spracticeandspreadthroughouttheprofession.

Answer:AsdefinedbyourcolleaguesattheAmericanPsychologicalAssociation,Evidence-BasedPractice(EBP)referstotheintegrationofscientificevidencewithindividualexpertiseinordertoinformoptimumclientcare.Thetextbooktellsusthatthepurposeistobolstertheefficacioustreatmentofmentaldisorders,maintainthecompetitivenessofpsychologistsinthementalhealthmarket,andtoincreaseaccountabilityandreduceliability.Inlayman’sterms,thismeansthatcliniciansactivelymaintainawarenessofthemostcurrentandusefulinformationavailableabouttheclientstheytreatandthemethodstheyusetohelpthoseclients.Thatinformationwillbebased notonlyonresearchbutalsoupontheexperiencesofcolleaguesthatcouldusefullyinformtheirclinicalactivities,helpthemavoiderrorsandpitfallsetc.
EBPachievesthesegoodsbyincreasingcommunicationbetweenandamongcliniciansandclinicalresearchers,reducingtime,trialanderrorinfindingthemosteffectiveassessmentandtreatmenttools,makingadjustmentsasindicatedbytheclient’sresponse. Byutilizingthemostup-to-dateandpertinentinformationfromresearchersandfellow clinicians,theinformedclinicianprovidesthebesttreatmentinthemostefficientmanner,withminimizedriskofharmresultingfromdelays,trial-and-error,ineffectiveor inappropriateinterventions.Byhelpingourclientsmoreeffectivelyandefficiently,thereistheaddedbonusofadvancingtheinterestsofpsychologyasaprofessioninthementalhealthmarketplace.
Thevalueofaparticularclinician’sexperienceisrecognizedinthedefinitionofEBP:communicationamongcliniciansispartofwhatEBPisallabout. Atthesametime,itisobviousthateventhemostexperiencedandknowledgeablecliniciancannotcompetewithadatabasethatisconstantlyevolvinginresponsetotheinputsresearchersandcliniciansfromallovertheworld.
Operationalized,EBPrequiresthecliniciantoidentifyandutilizeappropriateandefficientsourcesofinformationregardingtheproblemstheyassessandtreat–toroutinelyconsumeinformationrelevanttotheirpractice,andtoseekmoreinformationas required. Theavailableinformationcanbedescribedintermsof“layers”,withthemostaccessiblelayerbeingclinicalpracticeguidelines,whichhave“boileddown”themostcurrentandpertinentinformationfortheclinicianwholacksthetimetodothisforhimor herself.Otherclinicianwillprefertogodeeper,toreviewarticlesinjournalsthatprovidenotonlytheclinicalpracticeguidelines,butthecontroversiesbehindsomeofthedecisionsastohowtoformulatethese.Clinicianswillchooseformatsthatsuittheirneeds.Theycliniciancanconsultwiththeirpeersastohowtoachievethis. EBPinvolvesstayingcurrent,whichrequiresacommitmentofregularintakeaswellas focusedsearchesastheneedarises.
Ideally,theEBPclinicianwillregularlyreceivecommunicationwithpeersthroughnetworks(e.g.,emaillistserves)whereissuesinimplementingclinicalpractice
guidelines,specialpopulationsandsituationsarediscussed. ClinicianswhotakeEBPseriouslywillfeelobligatedtodisseminateinformationtotheircolleagues–notonlyinformationdirectlyrelevanttopractice,butinformationEBPitselfandmethodsof efficientlyaccessingEBPinformation.Cliniciansmightseeitastheirdutytosetup emaillistservesetc.Thisisagoodthingfortheobviousreasons–i.e.,moreclinicianswillbedoingabetterjob,whichis goodforclients,cliniciansandtheprofessionasawhole.It’salsobeneficialbecausegreaternumbersofclinicianssharinginformationwillcontributenotonlytoafaster-evolvingdatabasebutalsoabetterinfrastructurefor sharingtheinformation.Cliniciansmightproactivelythinkaboutwaystheymightachievethis,forexamplebysharingtheirinformationsourceswithcolleaguesincloseproximity,seekingotheropportunitiesintheirspheresofinfluenceetc.

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