Accounting 9th Canadian Edition Volume 1 Solution

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Accounting 9th Canadian Edition Volume 1 Solution

Chapter 1
Accounting and the Business Environment
Questions
1. Accounting is a system for measuring, processing, and communicating financial information. Bookkeeping is a procedural element of accounting.
2. a. The general public uses accounting information to manage bank accounts, loan payments, etc.
b. Managers and owners of businesses use accounting to monitor expenses and revenue recorded.
c. Investors and creditors use accounting information to evaluate investments and loan applications.
d. Government agencies (including taxation authorities) use accounting data to create reports and collect payments.
e. Not-for-profit organizations such as churches and hospitals use accounting information in much the same way as managers of businesses do—to manage their organizations.
3. Reasons for the development of accounting thought include the commercial climate of fifteenth-century Italy, the Industrial Revolution, the rise of the corporation as a business organization, income tax, the increase in the complexity of economic activities, and the increase in government influence on daily life. (Only two are required.)
4. Three professional designations of accountants are Chartered Accountant (CA), Certified General Accountant (CGA), and Certified Management Accountant (CMA).
5. The Accounting Standards Board formulates generally accepted accounting principles. It is not a government agency.
6. The owner of a proprietorship is called the proprietor, the owners of a partnership are called partners, and the owners of a corporation are called shareholders.
7. Ethical standards in accounting are designed to encourage accountants to produce honest information for decision making. The provincial institutes of CAs’ and the CGAAC’s ethical standards are directed toward independent auditors, but also govern CAs and CGAs, respectively, in industry and government. The SMAC’s standards relate more to management accountants.
8. The economic entity assumption draws clear boundaries around each entity. It is important because it allows decision makers to evaluate each entity as a separate economic unit.
9. Four examples of types of accounting entities are a household, a business such as a drugstore or a manufacturer, a professional organization such as a law firm or a medical practice, and a not-for-profit organization such as a church or a hospital. (Answers will vary.)
10. The essence of the reliability characteristic is that accounting information should be based on the most objective and verifiable data possible.
11. The cost principle dictates that assets and services purchased be recorded at the actual cost.
12. Liabilities = Assets – Owner’s Equity.
13. An account receivable is an asset because it is an economic resource that provides a future benefit—the right to collect cash from another party. An account payable is a liability because it is another party’s claim against the business’s cash—an economic obligation.
14. Transactions are events that affect the financial position of the entity and that may be reliably recorded. They are the raw material of accounting. Without transactions, there would be nothing to account for.
15. The result of operations is a net loss of $4,400, because expenses exceed revenues.
16. A more descriptive title for the balance sheet is the “statement of financial position.”
17. The balance between assets on the left side and liabilities and owner’s equity on the right side of the balance sheet gives this financial statement its name. The balance appears in the accounting equation, Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s Equity, which is essentially a summary of the balance sheet in equation form.
18. Another title of the income statement is the “statement of operations” or the “statement of earnings.”
19. The balance sheet is like a snapshot of the entity at a specific time. The income statement is like a moving picture/video of the entity’s operations during a period of time.
20. The statement of owner’s equity presents a summary of the changes that occurred in owner’s equity during the period due to additional investments by the owner, or drawings or withdrawals by the owner, and due to net income or net loss.
21. Capital is another term for the owner’s equity of a proprietorship.
22. Net income (or net loss) flows from the income statement to the statement of owner’s equity. Ending owner’s equity then flows to the balance sheet. The change in cash during the period on the balance sheet is explained by the cash flow statement, and the ending balance of cash on the cash flow statement matches the cash amount on the balance sheet.
23. Since Canada adopted IFRS in 2011, publicly accountable enterprises, which includes companies whose shares trade on stock exchanges, must report their financial results under IFRS. They are not allowed to report under accounting standards for private enterprises (ASPE). However, it makes sense that Canadian publicly traded companies should report under IFRS since technology and improved communications are allowing more businesses to either purchase or sell in markets outside Canada, and to have shareholders that reside anywhere in the world. Investors in Canadian companies reside all over the world. It is important that these investors be able to compare the financial results from companies in similar industries that are located in different countries. Having one set of accounting principles for all countries allows investors to do this.

Starters

(5 min.) S 1-1

Revenues are the amounts earned by Ryan in return for his providing goods and services to customers. Expenses are the decreases in equity that arise from the utilization of assets or the increase in liabilities to cover the costs needed to deliver goods and services to customers.
(5 min.) S 1-2

1. The bank is an external user.

2. The balance sheet would be the best financial statement for the bank to use, as it lists all of the assets, liabilities, and equities for the company.

(5–10 min.) S 1-3

Louise will want to consider the factors discussed in Exhibit 1-5. This shows that a corporation is the only type of business organization that has an unlimited life. Also, a corporation is responsible for business debts, not its shareholders. In other words, Louise’s liability will be limited.

(5–10 min.) S 1-4

1 a) Economic-Entity Assumption

b) Cost Principle of Measurement

c) Stable Monetary Unit Assumption

d) Reliability Characteristic

2. Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s Equity

12,000+24,000 = 10,000 + Owner’s Equity
36,000 = 10,000 + Owner’s Equity
Thus, Owner’s Equity = 26,000
(5–10 min.) S 1-5

a) Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s Equity
+ 500 = 0 + 500
b) Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s Equity
–1,500 = 0 + (–1,500)
(5–10 min.) S 1-6
1. Cash = 0, as this sale was on account.
Total Assets = 3,000, as an asset increases as a result of the transaction.

2. The asset is called Accounts Receivable.

(10–15 min.) S 1-7

a. Cost principle of measurement e Benefits of the information produced by an accounting system must be greater than the costs
b. Going-concern assumption f Amounts may be ignored if the effect on a decision maker’s decision is not significant
c. Stable-monetary-unit assumption a Transactions are recorded based on the cash amount received or paid
d. Economic-entity assumption c Transactions are expressed using units of money
e. Cost/benefit constraint b Assumes that a business is going to continue operations indefinitely
f. Materiality constraint d Business must keep its accounting records separate from its owner’s accounting records
(5–10 min.) S 1-8
Owner’s equity is $80,000, calculated as:

Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s Equity
Assets – Liabilities = Owner’s Equity
$200,000 – $120,000 = $80,000

(5–10 min.) S 1-9

No, an intention to rent is not a transaction because an event has not yet occurred that affects the financial position of the company and can be measured reliably. When a source document is received or when cash changes hands, then a transaction will have taken place.
(5–10 min.) S 1-10

The four main financial statements are the balance sheet, the income statement, the statement of owner’s equity, and the cash flow statement.

(10 min.) S 1-11

Laurel Wedding Planners
Income Statement
For the Year Ended December 31, 2014
Revenue:
Service revenue $120,000
Expenses:
Insurance expense $ 3,000
Rent expense 18,000
Salary expense 50,000
Supplies expense 1,000
Total expenses 72,000
Net income $48,000
(10 min.) S 1-12

The results of Laurel Wedding Planners for 2014 show it was a good year. This is because the company had net income, in the amount of $48,000.
Exercises
(5-10 min.) E 1-1
1. Accounting equation E The basic tool of accounting, stated as Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s Equity
2. Asset A An economic resource that is expected to be of benefit in the future
3. Balance sheet I Report of an entity’s assets, liabilities, and owner’s equity as of a specific date
4. Expense F Decrease in equity that occurs from using assets or increasing liabilities in the course of delivering goods or services to customers
5. Income statement J Report of an entity’s revenues, expenses, and net income or net loss for a period of time
6. Liability B An economic obligation (a debt) payable to an individual or an organization outside the business
7. Net income D Excess of total revenues over total expenses
8. Net loss C Excess of total expenses over total revenues
9. Revenue G Amounts earned by delivering goods or services to customers
10. Cash flow statement H Report of cash receipts and cash payments during a period
11. Statement of owner’s equity K Report that shows the changes in owner’s equity for a period of time

(15-20 min.) E 1-2
The income statement reports the revenues and expenses of a particular entity for a period such as a month or a year. Total revenues minus total expenses equals net income, or profit. A lender would require this information in order to predict whether the borrower can generate enough income to repay the loan.
The balance sheet reports the assets, liabilities, and owner’s equity of the entity at a particular point in time. The assets show the resources that the business has to work with. A lender wants to identify assets to know what can be taken if the borrower does not repay the loan. Liabilities—debts—represent creditors’ claims to the business’s assets. If the borrower already owes lots of money, he or she may be unable to repay the loan. Owner’s equity is the portion of the business assets owned outright by the owners of the business. The higher the owner’s equity, the stronger the borrower’s financial position, and the greater the probability of loan repayment.
Instructional Note: Student responses may vary considerably.

(5-10 min.) E 1-3
The switch to IFRS harmonizes Canadian accounting standards with those in use around the world, which will reduce confusion among users of financial statements.
The increasing amounts of globalization have resulted in more companies and more investors trading in more than one country, so a unified method of accounting would be useful for these companies.
(10–15 min.) E 1–4

Type of Account Statement
Supplies Expense E I
Accounts Receivable A B
J. Chiang, Capital OE SOE, B
Salary Expense E I
Computer Equipment A B
Consulting Service Revenue R I
Accounts Payable L B
Rent expense E I
Cash A B, CF
J. Chiang, Withdrawals OE SOE
Supplies A B
Notes Payable L B
(5-10 min.) E 1-5
a. Purchase of asset on account
Borrow money
b. Purchase of asset for cash
Sale of asset for cash
Collection of account receivable
c. Withdrawal of funds by the owner
Expense transaction
d. Pay a liability
e. Investment by owner
Revenue transaction
(10-20 min.) E 1-6
a. Increased assets (Cash)
b. Decreased assets (Cash)
c. Increased assets (Office Equipment)
d. Increased assets (Accounts Receivable)
e. Decreased assets (Cash)
f. No effect on total assets. Increase in cash offsets the decrease in accounts receivable.
g. No effect (a personal transaction)
h. No effect on total assets. Increase in cash offsets the decrease in land.
i. Increased assets (Cash)
j. No effect on total assets. Increase in land offsets the decrease in cash.

(5-15 min.) E 1-7
Req. 1 Owner’s
Assets Liabilities Equity
Economy Cuts $160,000 $ 120,000 $ 40,000
Marpole Dry Cleaners 100,000 50,000 50,000
Dauphin Gift and Cards 145,000 115,000 30,000

Req. 2
It is a distinguishing characteristic of proprietorships that they are a separate entity from the owners with no continuous life, so the three companies will cease to exist if the owners die.

(5-10 min.) E 1-8
Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s
Equity
Cash + Furniture = Accounts + Note + J. Thorpe,
Payable Payable Capital
$18,000 + $40,000 = $7,000 + $30,000 + $21,000
Based on the accounting equation, the owner has $21,000 equity in the business.
(10-15 min.) E 1-9

Total Total Total
Assets – Liabilities = Owner’s Equity
January 1, 2014 $44,000 – $18,000 = $26,000
Req. 1

December 31, 2014 $50,000 – $20,000 = $30,000

Increase during the year … $ 4,000
Req. 2
Reasons for the increase in owner’s equity:
1. Net income.
2. Owner made additional investments in the company.

(10-20 min.) E 1-10
a. Increase asset (Cash)
Increase owner’s equity (Owner, Capital)
b. Decrease asset (Cash)
Decrease owner’s equity (Rent Expense)
c. Increase asset (Office Supplies)
Decrease asset (Cash)
d. Increase asset (Accounts Receivable)
Increase owner’s equity (Service Revenue)
e. Increase asset (Office Furniture)
Increase liability (Accounts Payable)
f. Increase asset (Cash)
Decrease asset (Accounts Receivable)
g. Decrease asset (Cash)
Decrease liability (Accounts Payable)
h. Increase asset (Cash)
Decrease asset (Land)
i. Increase asset (Cash)
Increase owner’s equity (Service Revenue)
(10-20 min.) E 1-11
Hayashi Medical Clinic
Analysis of Transactions
OWNER’S
ASSETS = LIABILITIES + EQUITY
MEDICAL ACCOUNTS G. HAYASHI,
CASH + SUPPLIES + LAND = PAYABLE + CAPITAL TYPE OF OWNER’S
DATE EQUITY TRANSACTION
Jan. 6 250,000 250,000 Owner investment

Bal. 250,000 250,000
9 (150,000) 150,000
Bal. 100,000 150,000 250,000
12 10,000 10,000
Bal. 100,000 10,000 150,000 10,000 250,000
15 Not a business transaction
15-31 20,000 20,000 Service revenue
Bal. 120,000 10,000 150,000 10,000 270,000
15-31 (5,000) (5,000) Salary expense
(4,000) (4,000) Rent expense
(500) (500) Utilities expense
Bal. 110,500 10,000 150,000 10,000 260,500
28 1,000 (1,000)
Bal. 111,500 9,000 150,000 10,000 260,500
31 (4,000) (4,000)
Bal. 107,500 9,000 150,000 6,000 260,500
266,500 266,500
Req. 1 (10-20 min.) E 1-12
a. Investment by owner, Gary Oake
b. Rental revenue for cash
c. Purchase of rental equipment on account
d. Rental revenue on account
e. Payment of cash expenses
f. Rental revenue for cash
g. Collection of account receivable
h. Payment of account payable
Req. 2
Revenues ($1,000 + $1,000 + $4,500) $6,500
Less: Expenses 2,000
Net income $4,500

Req. 1 (10-20 min.) E 1-13
Summerland Consulting Services is a proprietorship, as shown by the owner’s capital account.
Req. 2 Summerland Consulting Services
Summerland Consulting Services
Balance Sheet
September 30, 2014
ASSETS LIABILITIES
Cash $ 5,000 Accounts payable $ 16,000
Accounts receivable 25,000 Note payable 50,000
Supplies 5,000 Total liabilities 66,000
Computer equipment 80,000 OWNER’S EQUITY
Megan Hall, capital $ 49,000*
Total liabilities and
Total assets $115,000 owner’s equity $115,000

* Computation: Total assets ($115,000) – Total liabilities ($66,000) = Owner’s equity (x)
Owner’s equity: (x) = $115,000 – 66,000
Owner’s equity: (x) = $49,000
Req. 3
The balance sheet reports financial position. The income statement reports operating results.

(15-20 min.) E 1-14
Hunter Environmental Consulting
Hunter Environmental Consulting
Income Statement
For the Period April 1 to April 21, 2014
Revenue:
Service revenue $55,000
Expenses:
Rent expense $4,000
Salary expense 6,500
Utilities expense 1,500
Total expenses 12,000
Net income $43,000

Hunter Environmental Consulting
Statement of Owner’s Equity
For the Period April 1 to April 21, 2014
Lisa Hunter, capital, April 1, 2014 $ 0
Add: Investment by owner 250,000
Net income for the period 43,000
Lisa Hunter, capital, April 21, 2014 $293,000

Hunter Environmental Consulting
Balance Sheet
April 21, 2014
ASSETS LIABILITIES
Cash $ 163,000 Accounts payable $ 2,000
Accounts receivable 25,000
Office supplies 7,000 OWNER’S EQUITY
Land 100,000 Lisa Hunter, capital 293,000
Total liabilities and
Total assets $295,000 owner’s equity $295,000
Req. 1 (15-20 min.) E 1-15
Philpott Company
Philpott Company
Income Statement
For the Year Ended December 31, 2015
Revenue:
Service revenue $610,000
Expenses:
Salary expense $430,000
Rent expense 48,000
Utilities expense 18,000
Supplies expense 30,000
Research expenses 27,000
Total expenses 553,000
Net income $ 57,000

Results of operations for 2015: Net income of $ 57,000

Req. 1 Kerr Consulting (30-40 mins) E1-16
OWNER’S
ASSETS = LIABILITIES + EQUITY
DATE CASH ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE SUPPLIES EQUIPMENT FURNITURE ACCOUNTS PAYABLE UNEARNED
REVENUE ALEX KERR, CAPITAL TYPE OF OWNER’S EQUITY TRANSACTION
Dec. 2 +30,000 +30,000 Owner investment
Bal. 30,000 30,000
2 -3,000 -3,000 Rent expense
Bal 27,000 27,000
3 -2,000 +2,000
Bal 25,000 2,000 27,000
4 +6,000 +6,000
Bal 25,000 2,000 6,000 6,000 27,000
5 +500 +500
Bal 25,000 500 2,000 6,000 6,500 27,000
9 +2,000 +2,000 Service revenue
Bal 25,000 2,000 500 2,000 6,000 6,500 29,000
12 -250 -250 Utility expense
Bal 24,750 2,000 500 2,000 6,000 6,500 28,750
18 +2,000 +2,000 Service revenue
Bal 26,750 2,000 500 2,000 6,000 6,500 30,750
21 2,000 2,000 Unearned revenue
Bal 28,750 2,000 500 2,000 6,000 6,500 2,000 30,750
23 -500 -500
Bal 28,250 500 2,000 6,000 6,000 2,000 30,750
28 1,500 -1,500
Bal 29,750 500 500 2,000 6,000 6,000 2,000 30,750
30 -2,000 -2,000 Owner withdrawal
Bal. $27,750 $500 $500 $2,000 $6,000 $6,000 2,000 $28,750
TOTAL ASSETS = $36,750 TOTAL LIABILITIES AND OWNER’S EQUITY = $36,750

Note: No journal entry is required for the December 22, 2013, event since a transaction has not yet taken place.

Challenge Exercise
Computed amounts are shown in boxes. (30-40 min.) E 1-17

Fraser Co. Delta Co. Pine Co.
Beginning:
Assets $350,000 $300,000 $540,000
– Liabilities (200,000) (120,000) (360,000)
= Owner’s equity $150,000 $ 180,000 $ 180,000
Ending:
Assets $500,000 $360,000 $715,0005
– Liabilities (250,000) (160,000) (480,000)
= Owner’s equity $250,000 $ 200,000 $ 235,000
Income Statement:
Revenues $660,000 $350,000 $900,000
– Expenses 460,000 180,0003 675,000
= Net income $200,000 $ 170,000 $225,000
Statement of Owner’s Equity:
Beginning owner’s equity $150,000 $ 180,000 $180,000
+ Investments by Owner 150,0001 0 50,000
+ Net income 200,000 170,0002 225,000
– Withdrawals by Owner (250,000) (150,000) (220,000)
= Ending owner’s equity $250,000 $ 200,000 $ 235,0004

1 $150,000 + Investments (Y) + $200,000 – $250,000= $250,000
Investments = $150,000
2 Net income (X) = $170,000 (180,000 + 0 + NI – 150,000 = 200,000)
3 Revenues – Expenses = Net income
$350,000 – Expenses = $170,000
Expenses = $180,000
4 Owner’s Equity = Beginning Equity + Investments + Net Income – Withdrawals
Owner’s Equity = $180,000 + $50,000 + $225,000 – $220,000
Owner’s Equity = $235,000
5 Assets – Liabilities = OE
Assets – $480,000 = $235,000
Assets = $715,000
(15–20 min.) E1-18
Req. 1

January 1, 2014 December 31, 2014
Total assets $300,000 $ 420,000
Total liabilities 260,000 340,000
Total owner’s equity $ 40,000 $ 80,000
Beginning + Investment + Net Income – Withdrawals = Ending
owner’s equity or – Net Loss owner’s equity

$40,000 + $50,000 + X – $30,000 = $80,000

X = $20,000

Req. 2

Merit Logistics
Statement of Owner’s Equity
For the Year Ended December 31, 2014

Sandy Merit, capital, January 1, 2014 $ 40,000

Add: Investments 50,000

Net Income 20,000
110,000

Deduct: Withdrawals (30,000)

Sandy Merit, capital, December 31, 2014 $ 80,000

Beyond the Numbers
(15-30 min.) BN 1-1
TO: Bank loan committee
SUBJECT: Vernon Engineering Co. loan recommendation
I recommend NOT lending $150,000 to Vernon Engineering Co. because
1. Net income has decreased slightly for the past two years.
2. Total assets have increased from $375,000 to $450,000; however, total liabilities have increased as well.
3. Withdrawals have exceeded net income for two of the past three years. As a result, owner’s equity has decreased from $230,000 to $205,000 in the past year.
4. A $150,000 loan to Vernon Engineering Co. would result in liabilities far exceeding owner’s equity.
It would be unlikely that Vernon Engineering Co. could repay the loan.
Instructional Note: Student responses may vary.

(15-20 min.) BN 1-2

Income Statement Balance Sheet
a. Expense of $1,000 a. Decrease owner’s equity by $1,000
Decrease cash by $1,000
b. Revenue of $1,500 b. No effect
Expense of $1,500

c. Storm loss c. Decrease cash, $5,000
(or repair expense), $5,000 Decrease owner’s equity, $5,000
Ethical Issues
Ethical Issue 1
1. This type of information should be disclosed so that investors can make an informed decision whether to invest in the shares of the corporation.
2. The chief financial officer (CFO) of CV Technologies might be tempted to underplay the compliance problems which caused the trading halts issued by the Securities Commissions in Alberta, British Columbia and Ontario. The ethical course of action for the CFO is to tell the truth, no matter what the effect is on the 2007 financial statements.
3. Negative consequences of not telling the truth include CV Technologies losing its reputation for honesty in its financial reports. Investors might stop investing in CV Technologies if they suspect that the financial statements do not disclose all relevant information or tell the truth.
Negative consequences of telling the truth include painting so bleak a picture of the compliance problem’s effects on the company that investors will view CV Technologies as very risky and stop buying the company’s shares.
It would be worse to lose a reputation due to dishonesty.

Ethical Issue 2
1. The fundamental ethical issue in this situation is letting the financial statements tell the truth about the company’s performance for the past year. Performance was bad, and the financial statements should present the poor performance of the company.
2. The proposal to transfer personal assets temporarily to the company violates the spirit, if not the letter, of the entity concept. The president implies that these assets can be transferred back to her at will, and the “investment” appears designed to make the company’s financial position appear better than it is. This is dishonest and unethical.
The request to “shave expenses” violates the reliability characteristic. The president wants the accountant to understate expenses in order to convert a loss into a reported income. This will make the financial statements inaccurate. This is dishonest and unethical.
Problems
Group A
Req. 1 (10-15 min.) P 1-1A
Conlin & Associates
Classification of Transactions
July 4 c 11 c
5 a 12 b
5 a 29 a
6 a 31 a
7 a
10 c
Req. 2 (continued) P 1-1A
Conlin & Associates
Analysis of Transactions
OWNER’S
ASSETS = LIABILITIES + EQUITY
ACCOUNTS OFFICE ACCOUNTS J. CONLIN
CASH + RECEIVABLE + SUPPLIES + FURNITURE = PAYABLE + CAPITAL TYPE OF OWNER’S
DATE EQUITY TRANSACTION
July 4*
5 50,000 50,000 Owner investment
5 (3,000) (3,000) Rent expense
Bal. 47,000 47,000
6 (1,000) 1,000
Bal. 46,000 1,000 47,000
7 7,000 7,000
Bal. 46,000 1,000 7,000 7,000 47,000
10*
11*
12*
29 10,000 10,000 Service revenue
Bal. 46,000 10,000 1,000 7,000 7,000 57,000
31 (3,000) (3,000) Owner withdrawal
Bal. 43,000 10,000 1,000 7,000 7,000 54,000
61,000 61,000
*Not a transaction of the business.

Req. 1 (20-25 min.) P 1-2A

As a proprietorship is considered to be an extension of the individual, it offers no protection from liability exposure. To limit liability. Shawn Steele will have to incorporate his company.

Req. 2
Shawn Steele, Realtor
Shawn Steele, Realtor
Balance Sheet
November 30, 2013
ASSETS LIABILITIES
Cash $ 9,000 Accounts payable $ 3,000
Office supplies 500 Note payable 30,000
Furniture 9,000 Total liabilities 33,000
Land 70,000
Franchise 15,000 OWNER’S EQUITY
S. Steele, capital $70,500
Total liabilities and
Total assets $103,500 owner’s equity $103,500

Req.3
Personal items not reported on the balance sheet of the business:
c. Personal residence ($500,000) and mortgage payable ($250,000)
d. Personal cash ($25,000)
e. Personal account payable ($1,000)

Req. 1 (25-35 min.) P 1-3A
Tisdale Suppliers

Date Type of Transaction
June 22 Investment of $7,000 by owner
Increase Cash, $7,000
Increase Owner’s Equity, $7,000
23 Cash purchase of land, $10,000
Decrease Cash, $10,000
Increase Land, $10,000
24 Purchase of supplies on account, $4,000
Increase Supplies, $4,000
Increase Accounts Payable, $4,000
25 Payment of $4,000 cash on account payable
Decrease Accounts Payable, $4,000
Decrease Cash, $4,000
26 Collection of $3,000 cash from customer on account receivable
Increase Cash, $3,000
Decrease Accounts Receivable, $3,000
27 Investment of $7,000 cash by owner
Increase Cash, $7,000
Increase Owner’s Equity, $7,000
28 Payment of $5,000 cash on account payable
Decrease Accounts Payable, $5,000
Decrease Cash, $5,000
29 Cash purchase of supplies, $3,000
Decrease Cash, $3,000
Increase Supplies, $3,000
30 Owner withdrawal of $10,000
Decrease cash, $10,000
Decrease Owner’s Equity, $10,000

(45-60 min.) P 1-4A
Req. 1 Superior Marketing Consultants
Superior Marketing Consultants
Income Statement
For the Year Ended December 31, 2014
Revenue:
Service revenue $450,000
Expenses:
Salary expense $240,000
Advertising expense 48,500
Interest expense 15,000
Courier expense 7,000
Insurance expense 4,500
Total expenses 315,000
Net income $ 135,000
Req. 2 Superior Marketing Consultants
Superior Marketing Consultants
Statement of Owner’s Equity
For the Year Ended December 31, 2014
S. Wong, capital, January 1, 2014 $ 300,000
Add: Net income for the year 135,000
435,000
Less: Owner withdrawals 103,500
S. Wong capital, December 31, 2014 $ 331,5000
(continued) P 1-4A
Req. 3 Superior Marketing Consultants
Superior Marketing Consultants
Balance Sheet
December 31, 2014
ASSETS LIABILITIES
Cash $ 15,000 Accounts payable $ 57,000
Accounts receivable 36,000 Salary payable 22,500
Supplies 7,500 Note payable 195,000
Furniture 45,000 Total liabilities 274,500
Computer equipment 165,000
Land 37,500 OWNER’S EQUITY
Building 300,000 S. Wong, capital $ 331,500
Total liabilities and
Total assets $606,000 owner’s equity $606,000

Req. 4
(a) Result of operations: Net income of $135,000
(b) Owner’s equity increased during the year. This would make it easier to borrow money from a bank in the future.
(c) At December 31, 2014:
Total economic resources—total assets $606,000
– Total amount owed—total liabilities (274,500)
= Owner’s equity $ 331,500
Req. 1 (20-25 min.) P 1-5A
Oliver Services Co.
Oliver Services Co.
Balance Sheet
July 31, 2013
ASSETS LIABILITIES
Cash $ 70,000 Accounts payable $45,000
Accounts receivable 75,000 Note payable 55,000
Office supplies 5,000 Total liabilities $100,000
Office furniture 50,000
Land 130,000 OWNER’S EQUITY
J. Oliver, capital $230,000
Total liabilities and
Total assets $330,000 owner’s equity $330,000

* Total assets $ 330,000
– Total liabilities (100,000)
= Owner’s equity (capital) $ 230,000
Req. 2
The total assets presented in the corrected balance sheet are less than those of the original balance sheet. The accounts that are not presented on the corrected balance sheet because they are revenues or expenses, but that are presented on the income statement, are:
Advertising expense
Rent expense
Service revenue

Note also that the date line in the balance sheet was changed from a period of time to a point in time.

Req. 1 (45-60 min.) P 1-6A
Reaney Personnel Services
Analysis of Transactions
OWNER’S
ASSETS = LIABILITIES + EQUITY
ACCOUNTS FURNITURE & ACCOUNTS M. REANEY,
CASH + RECEIVABLE + SUPPLIES + COMPUTERS = PAYABLE + CAPITAL TYPE OF OWNER’S
DATE EQUITY TRANSACTION
Bal. 40,000 35,000 95,000 55000 115,000
a) 80,000 80,000 Owner investment
Bal. 120,000 35,000 95,000 55,000 195,000
b) 5,000 5,000 Service revenue
Bal. 125,000 35,000 95,000 55,000 200,000
c) (55,000) (55,000)
Bal. 70,000 35,000 95,000 0 200,000
d) 6,000 6,000
Bal. 70,000 35,000 6,000 95,000 6,000 200,000
e) 7,500 (7,500)
Bal. 77,500 27,500 6,000 95,000 6,000 200,000
f) 48,000 48,000 Service revenue
Bal. 77,500 75,500 6,000 95000 6,000 248,000
g) (5,000) (5,000) Rent expense
(3,000) (3,000) Advertising expense
Bal. 69,500 75,500 6,000 95,000 6,000 240,000
h) 1,000 (1,000)
Bal. 70,500 75,500 5,000 95,000 6,000 240,000
i) (8,000) (8,000) Owner withdrawal
Balance $62,500 $75,500 $5,000 95,000 $6,000 $232,000
238,000 238,000
(continued) P 1-6A
Req. 2 Reaney Personnel Services
Reaney Personnel Services
Income Statement
For the Month Ended September 30, 2014
Revenue:
Service revenue ($5,000 + $48,000) $53,000
Expenses:
Rent expense $5,000
Advertising expense 3,000
Total expenses 8,000
Net income $45,000

Req. 3 Reaney Personnel Services
Reaney Personnel Services
Statement of Owner’s Equity
For the Month Ended September 30, 2014
M. Reaney, capital, September 1, 2014 $ 115,000
Add: Investment by owner 80,000
Net income for the month 45,000
240,000
Less: Owner withdrawal 8,000
M. Reaney, capital, September 30, 2014 $232,000

Req. 4 Reaney Personnel Services
Reaney Personnel Services
Balance Sheet
September 30, 2014
ASSETS LIABILITIES
Cash $ 62,500 Accounts payable $ 6,000
Accounts receivable 75,500
Supplies 5,000 OWNER’S EQUITY
Furniture and computers 95,000 M. Reaney, capital 232,000
Total liabilities and
Total assets $238,000 owner’s equity $238,000
(20-30 min.) P 1-7A
Tanner Glass, Lawyer
May 1:
Economic-entity assumption: Tanner Glass is transferring personal funds of $30,000 into his law practice.
May 3:
Reliability characteristic: The work should be recorded at $5,000, not at the “normal” amount, as the amount actually charged is the only objective evidence of what the work was worth.
May 5:
Going-concern assumption: The company expects to remain in operation long enough to use existing resources. The company must record this transaction as an asset, since it will provide future benefits, not as an expense, which is what Melrose wants to do.
May 10:
Cost Principle of Measurement: This event should not be recorded as a transaction since no “cost” was paid or received with the signing of the lease. This event does not meet the definition of a transaction.
May 18:
Economic-entity assumption: The loan should not be recorded by the company as it is a personal liability of Glass. However, the transfer of the money from Glass to the company must be recorded by the company.
May 25:
Economic-entity assumption: This transaction should not be recorded by the company, as it is a personal transaction.
May 28:
Economic-entity assumption: This withdrawal relates to the business and should be treated as a reduction in Owner’s Equity. The payment of a portion of the loan is related to a personal liability of Glass, and therefore should not be recorded by the company.
May 31:
Reliability characteristic: The computer equipment should be recorded at $10,000 since the only objective evidence of its value is the $10,000 of legal work completed.

(40-60 min.) P 1-8A
Terrace Board Rentals
Req. 1
Total profits for the period of January 1, 2013 to November 30, 2013 is equal to the balance of the owner’s equity on November 30, 2013, minus total investments by Terrace (investments = $50,000 + $20,000). This is calculated by subtracting liabilities and investments by Terrace from the total assets:
= $170,000* – ($12,000 + $40,000 + $70,000)
= $48,000

* 170,000 = 45,000 + 15,000 + 32,000 + 48,000 + 30,000
Req. 2
See the page following Req. 4.

Req. 3 Terrace Board Rentals
Terrace Board Rentals
Income Statement
For the Month Ended December 31, 2013
Revenue:
Rental revenue* $73,000
Expenses:
Wages expense $10,000
Rent expense 5,000
Utilities expense 4,000
19,000
Net income $54,000
* $119,000 = $18,000 + $40,000 + $33,000 + $28,000
Req. 4 Terrace Board Rentals
Terrace Board Rentals
Statement of Owner’s Equity
For the Month Ended December 31, 2013
R. Terrace, capital, December 1, 2013 $118,000
Add: Net income 54,000
172,000
Less: Withdrawals 7,000
R. Terrace, capital, December 31, 2013 $165,000

Req. 2 (continued) P 1-8A
Terrace Board Rentals
OWNER’S
ASSETS = LIABILITIES + EQUITY
DATE

CASH
ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE
RENTAL GEAR
RENTAL SNOWBOARDS
STORE EQUIPMENT
ACCOUNTS PAYABLE NOTE PAYABLE
R. TERRACE, CAPITAL TYPE OF OWNER’S EQUITY TRANSACTION
45,000 15,000 32,000 48,000 30,000 12,000 40,000 118,000

Dec 1 – 5,000 – 5,000 Rent expense
4 No transaction recorded
6 +10,500 +3,500 +14,000 Rental revenue
10 –12,000 –12,000
12 +20,000 +40,000 +60,000
13 +21,000 +21,000 Rental revenue
15 +15,000 –15,000
18 – 3,000 +10,000 + 7,000
20 +11,000 +11,000 +22,000 Rental revenue
21 -7000 -7000 Owner withdrawal
24 –60,000 –60,000
27 +16,000 +16,000 Rental revenue
27 +3,500 –3,500
31 -10,000 -10,000
31 -4,000 -4,000
Bal. $21,000 $11,000 $52,000 $88,000 $40,000 $7,000 $40,000 $165,000
TOTAL ASSETS = $212,000 TOTAL LIABILITIES AND OWNER’S EQUITY = $212,000
(continued) P 1-8A
Req. 5 Terrace Board Rentals
Terrace Board Rentals
Balance Sheet
December 31, 2013
ASSETS LIABILITIES
Cash $ 21,000 Accounts payable $ 7,000
Accounts receivable 11,000 Note payable 40,000
Rental gear 52,000
Rental snowboards 88,000 OWNER’S EQUITY
Store equipment 40,000 R. Terrace, capital 165,000
Total liabilities and
Total assets $212,000 owner’s equity 212,000
Req. 6
Ryan is correct in feeling that the business is profitable (profits of $54,000 in December 2013 and further profits of $48,000 since January 1, 2013). The reason he has to keep investing more money and is unable to make withdrawals at this time is due to the growth of the business; the assets have grown by $42,000 since November 30, 2013 ($219,000 – $170,000), with a decrease in liabilities of only $5,000. Ryan will have to continue to invest (and may be unable to make withdrawals) as long as the business continues to grow by an amount in excess of profitability, unless he finances some of the growth through increasing the liabilities.
Instructional Note: Student responses may vary.

Problems
Group B
Req. 1 (15-20 min.) P 1-1B
McLean Design
Classification of Transactions
July 1 c 7 a
2 c 9 a
3 c 23 a
5 a 31 a
5 a
6 b
Req. 2 (continued) P 1-1B
McLean Design
Analysis of Transactions
OWNER’S
ASSETS = LIABILITIES + EQUITY
ACCOUNTS OFFICE ACCOUNTS L. McLEAN,
CASH + RECEIVABLE + SUPPLIES + FURNITURE = PAYABLE + CAPITAL TYPE OF OWNER’S
DATE EQUITY TRANSACTION
July 1*
2*
3*
5 80,000 80,000 Owner investment
5 (4,000) 4,000) Rent expense
Bal. 76,000 76,000
6*
Bal. 76,000 76,000
7 (3,000) 3,000
Bal. 73,000 3,000 76,000
9 10,000 10,000
Bal. 73,000 3,000 10,000 10,000 76,000
23 12,000 12,000 Service revenue
Bal. 73,000 12,000 3,000 10,000 10,000 88,000
31 (5,000) (5,000) Owner withdrawal
68,000 12,000 3,000 10,000 10,000 83,000
93,000 93,000
*Not a business transaction

Req. 1 (20-25 min.) P 1-2B

As a proprietorship is considered to be an extension of the individual, it offers no protection from liability exposure. To limit her liability, Lupita will have to incorporate her company.

Req. 2
Lupita Goodman Realty
Lupita Goodwin Realty
Balance Sheet
March 31, 2014
ASSETS LIABILITIES
Cash $ 90,000 Accounts payable $ 14,000
Office supplies 6,000 Note payable 130,000
Furniture 18,000 Total liabilities 144,000
Land 165,000
Franchise 25,000 OWNER’S EQUITY
L. Goodwin, capital $160,000*
Total liabilities and
Total assets $304,000 owner’s equity $304,000

* Total assets $304,000
– Total liabilities (144,000)
= Owner’s equity (capital) $160,000
Req. 3
Personal items not reported on the balance sheet of the business:
a. Personal cash ($10,000)
e. Personal residence ($320,000) and mortgage payable ($185,000)
f. Personal account payable ($2,000)
Req. 1 (25-35 min.) P 1-3B
Kate Cameron, Management Accountant

Date Type of Transaction
Nov. 17 Collection of $1,000 cash from customer on account receivable
Increase Cash, $1,000
Decrease Accounts Receivable, $1,000
18 Payment of $1,000 cash on account payable
Decrease Cash, $1,000
Decrease Accounts Payable, $1,000
19 Purchase of supplies on account, $500
Increase Supplies, $500
Increase Accounts Payable, $500
20 Investment of $2,000 by owner
Increase Cash, $2,000
Increase Owner’s Equity (Capital), $2,000
23 Payment of $1,000 cash on account payable
Decrease Cash, $1,000
Decrease Accounts Payable, $1,000
24 Cash sale of furniture, $2,000
Increase Cash, $2,000
Decrease Furniture, $2,000
25 Cash purchase of supplies, $500
Decrease Cash, $500
Increase Supplies, $500
26 Withdrawal of cash by owner, $1,000
Decrease Cash, $1,000
Decrease Owner’s Equity (Capital), $1,000

(40-60 min.) P 1-4B
Req. 1 Harada Office Cleaning
Harada Office Cleaning
Income Statement
For the Year Ended December 31, 2014
Revenue:
Service revenue $650,000
Expenses:
Salary expense $280,000
Repairs expense 30,000
Utilities expense 25,000
Property tax expense 10,000
Interest expense 14,000
Total expenses 359,000
Net income $291,000
Req. 2 Harada Office Cleaning
Harada Office Cleaning
Statement of Owner’s Equity
For the Year Ended December 31, 2014
Y. Harada, capital, January 1, 2014 $200,000
Add: Net income for the year 291,000
491,000
Less: Withdrawals by owner 71,000
Y. Harada, capital, December 31, 2014 $420,000
(continued) P 1-4B
Req. 3 Harada Office Cleaning
Harada Office Cleaning
Balance Sheet
December 31, 2014
ASSETS LIABILITIES
Cash $ 25,000 Accounts payable $ 40,000
Accounts receivable 50,000 Interest payable 3,000
Supplies 10,000 Notes payable 200,000
Equipment 110,000 Total liabilities 243,000
Building 350,000 OWNER’S EQUITY
Land 100,000 Y. Harada, capital $420,000
Furniture 18,000 Total liabilities and
Total assets $663,000 owner’s equity $663,000

Req. 4
(a) Result of operations: Net income of $291,000, which is a profit.
(b) Owner’s equity increased during the year. This would make it easier to borrow money from a bank in the future.
(c) At December 31:
Total economic resources—total assets $ 663,000
– Total amount owed—total liabilities (243,000)
= Owner’s equity $ 420,000
Req. 1 (20-25 min.) P 1-5B
McBride Insurance Agency
McBride Insurance Agency
Balance Sheet
October 31, 2014
ASSETS LIABILITIES
Cash $24,000 Accounts payable $ 23,000
Accounts receivable 22,000 Note payable 40,000
Notes receivable 24,000 Total liabilities 63,000
Office furniture 20,000
OWNER’S EQUITY
C. McBride, capital $27,000*
Total liabilities and
Total assets $90,000 owner’s equity $90,000

* Total assets $90,000
– Total liabilities (63,000)
= Owner’s equity (capital) $27,000
Req. 2
The accounts that are not presented on the balance sheet because they are revenue and expenses, but that are presented on the income statement, are
Insurance expense
Rent expense
Salary expense
Utilities expense
Premium revenue

Req. 1 (45-60 min.) P 1-6B
Sykes Design Studio
Analysis of Transactions
OWNER’S
ASSETS = LIABILITIES + EQUITY
ACCOUNTS ACCOUNTS M. SYKES,
CASH + RECEIVABLE + SUPPLIES + LAND = PAYABLE + CAPITAL TYPE OF OWNER’S
DATE EQUITY TRANSACTION
Bal. 27,000 26,000 102,000 33,000 122,000
a) 20,000 20,000 Owner investment
Bal. 47,000 26,000 102,000 33,000 142,000
b) (33,000) (33,000)
Bal. 14,000 26,000 102,000 0 142,000
c) 5,000 5,000 Service revenue
Bal. 19,000 26000 102,000 0 147,000
d) 4,000 (4,000)
Bal. 23,000 22,000 102,000 0 147,000
e) 3,000 3,000
Bal. 23,000 22,000 3,000 102,000 3,000 147,000
f) 16,000 16,000 Service revenue
Bal. 23,000 38,000 3,000 102,000 3,000 163,000
g) (6,000) (6,000) Rent expense
(4,000) (4,000) Advertising expense
Bal. 13,000 38,000 3,000 102,000 3,000 153,000
h) 1,000 (1,000)
Bal. 14,000 38,000 2,000 102,000 3,000 153,000
i) (7,000) (7,000) Owner withdrawal
Balance $7,000 $38,000 $2,000 $102,000 $3,000 $146,000
149,000 149,000
(continued) P 1-6B
Req. 2 Sykes Design Studio
Sykes Design Studio
Income Statement
For the Month Ended May 31, 2014
Revenue:
Service revenue ($5,000 + $16,000) $21,000
Expenses:
Rent expense $6,000
Advertising expense 4,000
Total expenses 10,000
Net income $11,000

Req. 3 Sykes Design Studio
Sykes Design Studio
Statement of Owner’s Equity
For the Month Ended May 31, 2014
M. Sykes, capital, May 1, 2014 $122,000
Add: Investment by owner 20,000
Net income for the month 11,000
153,000
Less: Owner withdrawal 7,000
M. Sykes, capital, May 31, 2014 $146,000

Req. 4 Sykes Design Studio
Sykes Design Studio
Balance Sheet
May 31, 2014
ASSETS LIABILITIES
Cash $7,000 Accounts payable $ 3,000
Accounts receivable 38,000
Supplies 2,000 OWNER’S EQUITY
Land 102,000 M. Sykes, capital 146,000
Total liabilities and
Total assets $149,000 owner’s equity $149,000
(20-30 min.) P 1-7B
John Chang Plumbing

June 1:
Cost Principle of Measurement: The equipment should be recorded at its purchase price to John, not at its original cost to Mark or at its replacement cost.
June 3:
Reliability Characteristic: The work should be recorded at $1,000, not at the “normal” amount, as the amount actually charged is the only objective evidence of what the work was worth.
June 10:
Cost Principle of Measurement: This event should not be recorded as a transaction since no “cost” was paid or received with the signing of the lease. This event does not meet the definition of a transaction.
June 18:
Economic-entity Assumption: The loan should not be recorded by the company as it is a personal liability of John.
June 22:
Stable-Monetary-Unit Assumption: John must leave the value of the shop equipment at $80,000. Accountants assume that the dollar’s purchasing power is relatively stable and the stable-monetary-unit assumption is the basis for ignoring the effects of inflation in the accounting records.
June 28:
Economic-entity Assumption: The $7,000 that John paid on the loan is irrelevant to the records of John Chang Plumbing as it is a personal transaction and therefore should not be recorded by the company. The $12,000 withdrawal does relate to the business and should be treated as a reduction of Owner’s Equity.

(40-60 min.) P 1-8B
Wilson Marketing Consulting
Req. 1
Total net income for the period of January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2013, is equal to the balance of the owner’s equity minus investments by Wilson ($50,000 + $30,000). This is calculated by subtracting the liabilities and investments by Wilson from the total assets:
= $123,000* – ($18,000 + $80,000)
= $25,000

* 123,000 = 25,000 +30,000 + 21,000 + 15,000 + 32,000
This could also be calculated by subtracting the investments by Wilson from the owner’s equity:
= $105,000 – $80,000*
= $25,000

* 80,000 = 50,000 + 30,000
Req. 2
See the page following Req. 3.

Req. 3 Wilson Marketing Consulting
Wilson Marketing Consulting
Income Statement
For the Month Ended January 31, 2014
Revenue:
Service revenue ($31,000 + $12,000) $43,000
Expenses:
Wages expense $10,000
Rent expense 4,000
Delivery expense 1,000
Utility expense 1,000
Total expenses 16,000
Net income $27,000

(continued) P 1-8B
Req. 2 Wilson Marketing Consulting
OWNER’S
ASSETS = LIABILITIES + EQUITY

DATE
CASH ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE
SOFTWARE OFFICE FURNITURE COMPUTER EQUIPMENT ACCOUNTS PAYABLE LIN WILSON, CAPITAL TYPE OF OWNER’S EQUITY TRANSACTION
25,000 30,000 21,000 15,000 32,000 18,000 105,000
Jan. 2 + 20,000 + 20,000 Owner investment
2 – 4,000 – 4,000 Rent expense
4 No transaction recorded.
6 + 10,000 +21,000 + 31,000 Service revenue
10 – 1,000 – 1,000 Delivery expense
12 NO EFFECT
14 – 3,000 + 5,000 + 2,000
15 + 7,000 – 7,000
18 – 4,000 + 10,000 + 6,000
23 + 12,000 + 12,000 Service revenue
29 – 2,000 – 2,000
31 -10,000 -10,000 Wage expense
31 -1,000 -1,000 Utilities expense
31 -5,000 -5,000 Owner withdrawal
Bal. $32,000 $56,000 $26,000 $15,000 $42,000 $24,000 $147,000
TOTAL ASSETS = $171,000 TOTAL LIABILITIES AND OWNER’S EQUITY = $171,000
(continued) P 1-8B
Req. 4 Wilson Marketing Consulting
Wilson Marketing Consulting
Statement of Owner’s Equity
For the Month Ended January 31, 2014
L. Wilson, capital, January 1, 2014 $105,000
Add: Investment by owner 20,000
Net income for the month 27,000
152,000
Less: Withdrawals 5,000
L. Wilson, capital, January 31, 2014 $147,000
Req. 5
Wilson Marketing Consulting
Balance Sheet
January 31, 2014
ASSETS LIABILITIES
Cash $ 32,000 Accounts payable $ 24,000
Accounts receivable 56,000
Software 26,000
Office furniture 15,000 OWNER’S EQUITY
Computer equipment 42,000 L. Wilson, capital 147,000
Total liabilities and
Total assets $171,000 owner’s equity $171,000
Req. 6
Wilson is correct in feeling that the business is profitable (profits of $27,000 in January 2014 and profits of $25,000 in 2013). The reason she has to keep investing more money and is unable to make large withdrawals at this time is due to the growth of the business; the assets grew by $48,000 in January ($171,000 – $123,000) with an increase in liabilities of only $6,000. Wilson will have to continue to invest (and will be unable to make withdrawals) as long as the business continues to grow by an amount in excess of profitability unless she finances some of the growth through increasing the liabilities.
Instructional Note: Student responses may vary.

Challenge Problems
(15-20 min.) P 1-1C
The student should explain that assets are valued on a going-concern basis in the financial statements because the company expects to remain in operation into the foreseeable future. The company, therefore, expects to realize more than the cost value of its inventory (since selling price is set higher than the original cost of the inventory). It also expects it will collect the value of its receivables because customers will want to do future business with the company. Once the company goes out of business, the inventory becomes worth what it can be sold for under distress conditions. The outstanding accounts receivable are usually insufficient to cover the liabilities.

(15-20 min.) P 1-2C
A commitment (signed contract) is not a transaction. The group does have commitments from 200 families to pay them for the work they will do in the future. No transactions have occurred, so they cannot recognize the commitments as assets. A transaction must have occurred for an asset to be recorded.
The group should make a list of the commitments for the bank to show the bank that they have carefully planned and that they have prospective revenues.
The group should consider asking customers to pay in advance for the lawn-care work. This cash would have improved the balance sheet and reduced the need for a loan. The offsetting entry for this would be unearned revenue, which will be discussed in further detail in Chapter 3.

Decision Problems
(30-40 min.) Decision Problem 1
Req. 1
Based solely on these balance sheets, Ryan’s Catering appears to be the better credit risk because Ryan’s has only $213,000 of liabilities compared to $390,000 for Tyler’s Bicycle Centre. Ryan’s owner’s equity is far greater than that of Tyler’s ($510,000 compared to $230,000). Tyler’s is already heavily in debt. You would be better off granting the loan to Ryan’s Catering. You should consider what would happen if the borrower could not pay you back as planned. The two companies have about the same amount of assets to sell for cash if they need to come up with the money to pay you, but Ryan’s has far less debt to pay to others before paying you.
Req. 2
Information in addition to the balance sheet:
1. Income statements for several recent periods to see the two companies’ profitability. Income statement data (especially the amount of net income or net loss) provide an important measure of business success or failure.
2. Forecasted income for the future.
3. Valuations of the assets of each company. For Tyler’s Bicycle Centre, a report from an assessor should give the current market value of the land and building. For Ryan’s Catering, a report from an assessor should give the current market value of the investments.
4. Statement of what they plan to do with the borrowed money and how they expect to pay it back.
5. Credit ratings from an independent credit agency.

6. Financial ratios, which will be examined in the coming chapters.

(15-30 min.) Decision Problem 2
1. An understanding of accounting is required information for all areas of business, including computers, marketing, production, and so on. In taking this course I will learn to use accounting terminology, analyze business transactions, and understand financial statements, in addition to the other learning objectives listed in each chapter.
2. Accounting information is used:
a. By a private individual—to balance a chequebook and account for personal transactions; to prepare financial statements in order to obtain a loan; to lend and borrow intelligently; to understand share and bond investments; and to compute one’s income tax and prepare the tax return, among other uses.
b. By a friend who plans to be a farmer—similar to the answer to a, plus to account for the cost of seed, fertilizer, livestock, employee wages, and crops; to prepare government forms for assistance plans; to compute amortization on farm equipment; and to budget operations.
c. By a friend who plans a career in sales—similar answer to a, plus to budget sales and expenses; to set the prices of products; to compute sales commissions to be received; and to be able to use the language of accounting to communicate with clients.
Instructional Note: Student responses may vary. They will probably not be as thorough as this suggested solution.

Financial Statement Cases
(30-40 min.) Financial Statement Case 1

ALL AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS OF U.S. DOLLARS

Req. 1
Cash and cash equivalents at October 2, 2011 $88,802

Req. 2

October 2, 2011 October 3, 2010

Total assets $1,889,721 $1,327,532

Req. 3

Assets = Liabilities + Shareholders’ Equity
$1,889,721 = $562,406 + $1,327,315

Req. 4

Year ended Year ended
October 2, 2011 October 3, 2010

Total revenue (net sales) $1,726,041 $1,311,463

Increase of $414,578, or 31.6%

Req. 5

Net income (net earnings) $239,904 $198,245

Increase of $41,659, or 21.0%
The year ending October 2, 2011, was a very good year, as compared to the year ended October 3, 2010. Total revenues (net sales) were higher than for the preceding year by $414,578, or 31.6%. Net income (net earnings) was also higher than for the previous year by $41,659, or 21.0%. Overall, the company appears to be growing at a very good rate.

(30-40 min.) Financial Statement Case 2

Req. 1

Trade and other accounts receivable, December 31, 2011 $14,543,564
Req. 2
December 31, 2011 December 31, 2010
Total assets $25,556,635 $18,261,921
Req. 3
Assets = Liabilities + Shareholders’ Equity
$25,556,635 = $15,349,397 + $10,207,238

Req. 4
December 31, 2011 December 31, 2010
Total revenue $18,827,454 $19,472,313

There was a decrease of $644,859, or 3.3%, during 2011.

Req. 5

December 31, 2011 December 31, 2010
Net income (earnings) $3,347,738 $ 931,138

There was an increase of $2,416,600, or 260%, during 2011.

Based on revenues, it appears 2011 was a difficult year compared to 2010, since there is a decrease in revenues of $644,859, or 3.3%. However, earnings for the year increased $2,416,600, or 260%, in 2011 as compared to 2010, which means the company kept tight control of expenses.

(15-20 min.) IFRS Mini-Case

Many companies follow a similar path as Hunter Environmental Consulting (HEC) as they grow. These organizations typically start out as proprietorships. As they grow and need to raise more funds to operate and expand the business, the owner will incorporate the company. Typically, the shares of stock in the company will be held by the original owner and perhaps a few associates; it is referred to as a private company. This incorporation allows the owners to more easily borrow money from a bank or sell part of the business to other individuals or companies by issuing shares of stock in the company. Eventually, the company may decide to “go public,” allowing it to raise more funds by attracting more shareholders. To do this, the company registers on a security exchange, such as the Toronto Stock Exchange.
Accounting standards vary depending on what type of organization the company is. Proprietorships and private companies will typically follow accounting standards for private enterprises (ASPE), as these standards are more readily applicable to these companies. The way of reporting financial information is somewhat more flexible and the disclosure required is minimal compared to a public company, because the number of shareholders is quite small and if a shareholder needs information about the company, it can get it directly from the company’s management. If a company, such as Hunter Environmental Consulting, decides to go public, it will have to follow international financial reporting standards (IFRS). Why? Once a company is public, it will have more shareholders, many of whom do not have a close relationship with the company, so cannot get information from the company’s managers. IFRS forces companies to provide more disclosure and provide more detailed financial information to overcome shareholders’ and creditors’ lack of direct access to the managers of the company.